Mais les résultats doivent être attendus longtemps et il n'y a généralement pas de temps doxycycline prix L'autre cas, c'est que l'achat d'un ou d'un autre antibiotique dans une pharmacie classique nécessite des dépenses matérielles considérables et pas toutes les personnes ne peuvent acheter des produits pharmaceutiques aussi coûteux.
Microsoft word - rr urinecheck-7.doc
UCheck 7 Drug Adulteration Test Strip
For in vitro
use only. Read all instructions, precautions, and
chlorochromate to form a blue color complex. Other colors
limitations before performing this test.
may indicate the presence of other oxidants.
: Testing for the presence of acidic or alkaline adulterant.
This test is based on the well-known double pH indicator
UCheck 7 is a fast dip-and-read test for the determination of
method that gives distinguishable colors over wide pH range.
diluted or adulterated urine specimens. It is an important
The colors range from orange (low pH) to yellow and green to
pre-screening test for any drug-testing program.
SUMMARY AND EXPLANATION
: Testing for sample dilution. This test is
UCheck 7 drug adulteration tests are firm plastic strips to which
based on the apparent pKa change of certain pretreated
seven different reagent areas are affixed. UCheck 7 test strips
polyelectrolytes in relation to the ionic concentration. In the
are ready-to-use and disposable. No equipment is required for
presence of an indicator, the colors range from dark blue or
its use. Only fresh and uncentrifuged urine samples without
blue-green in urine of low ionic concentration to green and
yellow in urine of higher ionic concentration.
UCheck 7 provides tests for Creatinine, Nitrite, pH, Specific
Testing for the presence of bleach in urine. In this test,
Gravity, Glutaraldehyde, Oxidants, and Pyridium
the presence of bleach forms a blue-green color complex.
Chlorochromate in urine. Test results may be useful for
assessing the integrity of the urine sample prior to
Testing for the presence of
Drugs-of-Abuse testing; for example, whether the sample is
chromate in urine. In this test, the presence of chromate forms a
possibly diluted with water or other liquids as indicated by the
creatinine and specific gravity tests. UCheck 7 detects whether
the sample contains commercially available adulterants
including nitrite, glutaraldehyde, bleach, pyridinium
1. Store at room temperature between 59– 86 oF (15 – 30 oC).
chlorochromate and other oxidizing agents. UCheck 7 can also
2. All test strips should be stored in the original container.
assess whether the sample is possibly contaminated by acidic
(vinegar) or basic (ammonia solution) adulterants as indicated
4. Remove only as many strips required for testing and
immediately recap the container tightly.
In general, all seven tests are based on the chemical reactions of
the indicator reagents on the pads with components in the urine
sample effecting color changes. Results are obtained by
comparing the color on each of the test pads with the
corresponding pad on the container color chart label.
1. Collect urine in a clean glass or plastic container.
Testing for sample dilution. In this assay,
2. Test urine sample as soon as possible after collection.
creatinine reacts with a creatinine indicator in an alkaline
Refrigerate urine sample immediately if the sample cannot
condition to form a purplish-brown color complex. The
be tested within one hour. Bring refrigerated sample to
concentration of creatinine is directly proportional to the color
room temperature and mix thoroughly before testing.
3. Do not centrifuge or add preservatives to the urine sample.
4. Handle the urine sample as if it is potentially infectious.
: Testing for the presence of exogenous
5. Aliquot a small portion of the urine sample into another
aldehyde. In this assay, the aldehyde group on the
container for testing in order to avoid contamination of the
glutaraldehyde reacts with an indicator to form a pink/purple
whole urine sample. Do not dip UCheck 7 directly into the
: Testing for the presence of exogenous nitrite. Nitrite
reacts with an aromatic amine to form a diazonium compound
1. Remove from the bottle only enough strips for immediate
in an acid medium. The diazonium compound in turn couples
with an indicator to produce a pink-red/purple color.
2. Completely immerse reagent areas of the strip in fresh,
well-mixed urine. Remove the strip immediately to avoid
: Testing for presence of oxidizing reagents. In this
reaction, a color indicator reacts with oxidants such as
3. While removing, touch the side of the strip against the rim
hydrogen peroxide, ferricyanide, persulfate, or pyridinium
of the urine container to remove excess urine. Blot the
lengthwise edge of the strip on an absorbent paper towel to
the possibility of adulteration. However, false positive may
further remove excess urine and avoid running over
result when ketone bodies are presence in urine. Ketone bodies
(contamination from adjacent reagent pads.)
may appear in urine when a person is in ketoacidosis, starvation
4. Compare each reagent area to its corresponding color
blocks on the color chart and read at the times specified.
Proper read time is critical for optimal results.
: Although nitrite is not a normal component of urine,
5. Obtain results by direct color chart comparison.
nitrite levels of up to 3.6 mg/dl may be found in some urine
specimens due to urinary tract infections, bacterial
contamination or improper storage. Oxidants
: The presence of oxidizing reagents in the urine is
indicative of adulteration since oxidizing reagents are not
normal constituents of urine. Oxidizing reagents include
Hydrogen Peroxide, Ferricyanide, Persulfate, Pyridinium
Note: All reagent areas may be read between 1 - 2 minutes for
: Normal urine pH ranges from 4.5 to 8.0. Values below pH
screening positive urine from negative urine. Changes in color
4.0 or above pH 9.0 are indicative of adulteration.
after 2 minutes are of no diagnostic value.
: Random urine may vary in specific gravity
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
from 1.003 - 1.030. Normal adults with normal diets and
Semi-quantitative results are obtained by visually comparing
normal fluid intake will have an average urine specific gravity
the color of each pad with the corresponding test color block
of 1.016 - 1.0227. Elevated urine specific gravity value may be
pictured on the container label. No equipment is required.
obtained in the presence of moderate quantities of protein.
DOT guidelines1 state that a urine specimen with specific
gravity level of less than 1.003 is an indication of adulteration.
For best results, performance of reagent strips should be
Specific gravity and creatinine values should be considered
confirmed by testing known negative and positive specimens or
together to provide a better picture of whether the sample is
controls whenever a new test is performed or whenever a new
bottle is first opened. Each laboratory should establish its own
goals for adequate standard of performance, and should
The presence of any chromate in
question handling and testing procedures if these standards are
urine is indicative of adulteration as chromate is not a normal
Comparison to the color chart is dependent on the interpretation
1. U.S. Department of Transportation, Drug Testing
of the individual. It is therefore, recommended that all
laboratory personnel interpreting the results of these strips be
2. Young, D.S.et al, Clinical Chemistry, 21 (9), 1975.
tested for color blindness. As with all laboratory tests,
3. Friedman, R.B. et.al. Clinical Chemistry: 26 (4), 1980.
definitive diagnostic or therapeutic decisions should not be
4. Tietz, N.W. Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Third
based on any single test result or method.
Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, p566, 1995.
5. Chu, S.Y. and Sparks. Clinical Chemistry, 17, 1984.
Some compounds or physical properties that may affect the test
6. Tingsrud, K.M. and Linne, J.J., Urinalysis and body Fluids
result are listed below. Medications that discolor the urine may
A color Test and Atlas, Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1995.
also cause abnormal results due to masking of the reactions of
7. Henry, J.B. et al.: Clinical Diagnosis and Management by
Laboratory Methods, 16th Ed. Philadelphia: Saunders;
: Daily creatinine excretion, related to muscle mass
of the human body, is usually constant6. The DOT guideline1
states that urine specimens with creatinine levels of less than 20
mg/dl are indications of adulteration. Although these ranges
are affected by age, sex, diet, muscle mass and local population
distribution2, sample with creatinine level of lower than 20
mg/dl should be considered adulterated.
Glutaraldehyde is not a natural component
of human urine and it should not be present in normal urine.
The presence of glutaraldehyde in the urine sample indicates
STABILIZED FOLIC ACID VITAMIN FOR THE REDUCTION OF EXCESS SLUDGE IN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS Jörg Strunkheide, Dr. Ing. (Sankt Augustin, Germany) Folic acid sources and medical application Vitamins are essential nutritional compounds that contribute to a variety of functions, includingmetabolic maintenance and cell growth /1/. Each vitamin has particular roles that cannot befulfilled b
Curriculum Vitae of Prof Brian Harvey SA Pharmacy Council (You can use abbreviations) Faculty of Health Sciences: School of Pharmacy Internal mail box 16, Private bag X6001, Potchefstroom South Africa, 2520 Division of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy North-West University (NWU) Potchefstroom Campus (PUK) Hoffman street Potchefstroom 2520 3. Qualifications (Start with most recent) Potch