BLADDER INFECTION, FEMALE (Cystitis in Women) EXPECTED OUTCOMES BASIC INFORMATION
• Curable in a few days to 2 weeks with treatment. • Recurrence is common. DESCRIPTION POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS
Bladder infection (cystitis) is a disorder of the urinary
Inadequate treatment can lead to chronic bladder infec-
bladder (the organ that stores urine). Bladder infections
tions, kidney infection, and (rarely) kidney failure.
are very common. Up to one-third of all females willhave one at some point in their lives.
BDIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT FREQUENT SIGNS & SYMPTOMS • Pressure, burning, or stinging during urination. GENERAL MEASURES
• Frequent urination, although the amount of urine
• Your health care provider may do a physical exam.
may be small; increased urge to urinate.
Medical tests will include a urine test.
• Sensation of incomplete bladder emptying.
• Treatment is usually with antibiotic drugs.
• Pain in the abdomen over the bladder or lower back.
• Warm baths may help relieve discomfort.
• Blood in the urine; bad-smelling urine.
• Pour a cup of warm water over genital area while uri-
• Low fever and, possibly, chills.
nating. It will help to relieve burning and stinging. MEDICATION
• Lack of urinary control (sometimes).
• Antibiotics for bacterial infection will be prescribed.
• A need to urinate more often at night.
Antibiotics may reduce the effectiveness of some birth
control pills. If you are using birth control pills, discuss
The infection is caused by bacteria (germs) that enter
this with your health care provider.
the urinary tract system. A woman’s urethra opening
• Urinary analgesics may be prescribed for pain. If
(tube from bladder to outside) is short in length and
phenazopyridine (Pyridium) is prescribed, it will turn
close to the anus, which makes it easier for germs to
travel from the bowel area. Germs inside the urethra
can travel up into the bladder, causing infection and
Avoid sexual intercourse until you have been free of
symptoms for 2 weeks to allow inflammation to heal. RISK INCREASES WITH
• Drink plenty of water daily to flush the bladder.
• Previous urinary tract infections.
• Drink cranberry juice to acidify urine. Some antibiotic
drugs have increased effectiveness when the urine is
• Aging and associated conditions (e.g., menopause).
• Diabetes or other disorder affecting immune system. • Certain types of birth control. These can include adiaphragm, spermicidal agent, or condom.
CNOTIFY OUR OFFICE IF
• Urinary tract problems (tumors, calculi, or strictures). • Insertion of an instrument into the urinary tract (e.g.,
• You or a family member has symptoms of bladder
• Poor hygiene or incomplete bladder emptying.
• Blood appears in the urine. • Discomfort and other symptoms don’t improve after
you have taken the antibiotics for 48 hours.
• Urinate within 15 minutes after intercourse.
• New, unexplained symptoms develop. Drugs used in
• Drink plenty of water every day.
• Get medical care for urinary tract infections.
• Don’t douche, use feminine hygiene sprays, ordeodorants. Avoid bubble baths. • Clean the anal area after bowel movements. Wipe
from the front to the rear, rather than rear to front. • Wear underwear that has a cotton crotch. • Avoid postponing urination. Be sure to completelyempty the bladder with urination. • In women with frequent recurrence of infection,antibiotics may be prescribed for use before or aftersexual intercourse or on a regular basis.
Copyright 2011 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
7th November 2011 To: All General Practitioners, Mid & West Wales Dear Colleagues There has been an increase in number of confirmed cases of whooping cough in children and adults in Mid & West Wales Region in the past 2 months. The purpose of this letter is to remind you of the signs and symptoms of the disease and of the importance of notifying all clinically s
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