Biographical sketch

neurochemistry and head of the Laboratory of University of Groningen, The Netherlands University of Groningen, The Netherlands A. Positions and Honors.

Positions and Employment

Instruction assistant, Dentistry, University of Groningen Instructor and Fellow in Enzymology, Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Rotterdam Postdoc in Pharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, Pharmacology, Erasmus University Rotterdam Instructor in Pharmacology, Pharmacology, Erasmus University Rotterdam Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Section Pathophysiology of Behavior, Erasmus University Rotterdam Assistant Professor of Neurochemistry, Psychiatry, Erasmus University Rotterdam Assistant Professor of Neurochemistry, Neuroscience, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam Assistant Professor of Neurochemistry, Psychiatry, Erasmus University Rotterdam
Other experience and Professional Memberships
Member, Royal Dutch Society of Chemistry Member, Dutch Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Member, Dutch Society of Pharmacochemistry Course of Radiation Protection (certificate May 1980) Member, Interdisciplinary Society for Biological Psychiatry Secretary of Executive Committee, Department of Pharmacology, Erasmus University Rotterdam Teacher in the professional training for psychiatrists Member, European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Curriculum_Vitae_Engels_Durk_Fekkes_2011_6924688.doc Coordinator for Environmental Health and Safety in Dept. of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam Member, Network Quality Control, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam Advisor for Emotional Brain, Almere, The Netherlands Coordinator and lecturer of the module “Psychiatric disorders” of the Master’s Programme in Neuroscience B. Research:

Research interests:

My main research interest is in biochemical and neurobiological research on neuropsychiatric
disorders. The aim is to elucidate biochemical mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and
to find biomarkers that may predict onset, recurrence and treatment outcome of these disorders.
The focus is on the existence of possible derangements in the metabolism of amino acids and the
neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline. In addition, the role of some neural
growth factors, and changes in the inflammatory and oxidative stress system are investigated.
The most important methodological expertise is the determination of primary amino acids,
serotonin, the neurotransmitter metabolites 5-HIAA and HVA, the tryptophan metabolites
norharman and kynurenine, and the pteridines neopterin and (tetrahydro)biopterin in body fluids
by sensitive and reproducible HPLC methods.

Supervision in the past six years:

5 Master students
11 PhD students (of whom 7 were residents in psychiatry)
Overview of projects and collaborations:
1. Schizophrenia:
a. Neuroplasticity associated protein S100B and other neurotrophic proteins (BDNF and IGF-1) in
recent onset psychotic disorders: Nico van Beveren (Dept Psychiatry)
b. Possible use of serum S100B and/or BDNF as predictive factors (for the course of a psychosis)
and as a risk factor (for developing a psychosis in family members of schizophrenic patients).
GROUP (Genetic Risk and Outcome in Psychosis (Geestkacht) (grant applied): Nico van
Beveren (Dept Psychiatry) and Lieuwe de Haan (AmsterdamMC)
c. Symptomatology, clinical efficacy and relationship with monoaminergic parameters, pterines,
neurotrophic factors and amino acids (schizophrenic patients treated with several atypical
antipsychotics): Willem Verhoeven/Noortje van de Kerkhof (Vincent van Gogh Institute, Venray).
2. Depression:
a. Pharmacological treatment of depression (venlafaxine vs. imipramine and lithium addition): 1)
dysregulation of the pteridine system (biopterin, neopterin and the phenylalanine-tyrosine ratio)
and 2) to differentiate between two symptom-clusters: the more serotonergic symptoms (anxiety
and agitation: tryptophan, trp/LNAA, MAO) versus the more noradrenergic symptoms (impaired
attention, problems concentrating, deficiencies in working memory, slowness of information
processing, depressed mood, psychomotor retardation and fatigue: tyrosine/LNAA, MHPG):
Walter v.d.Broek (Dept Psychiatry)
b. The role of S100B and BDNF in the pathophysiology of depression: Walter v.d.Broek en Tom
Birkenhäger (Dept Psychiatry)
Curriculum_Vitae_Engels_Durk_Fekkes_2011_6924688.doc 3. Delirium: a. Predictors of cognitive function after postcardiotomy delirium DECO study), i.e. amino acids, HVA, neopterin, biopterin and tetrahydrobiopterin: Michiel Hengeveld/Robert Jan Osse (Dept Psychiatry), Stolk and Bogers (Thorax Surgery) and Roos van der Mast (Dept Psychiatry, UMC Leiden) b. Causes and outcomes of delirium in patients 65 years and older in relation to biochemical parameters (DITO study), i.e. levels of amino acids, HVA, CRP, interleukines, IGF-1, neopterin, biopterin and tetrahydrobiopterin: Tischa van der Cammen/Milly van der Ploeg (Dept Internal Medicine, Geriatric Section), Herbert Hooijkaas (Dept Immunology), Bert Ziere (Havenziekenhuis) and Romke van Balen (Antonius Binnenweg, St. Laurens) 4. Perioperative changes in inflammatory markers, and in nitric oxide and related amino acids during/after gyneacological and thoracic surgery, and during craniotomy: Stolker, Klimek and Jaap Hol (Dept Anesthesiology) 5. Tryptophan depletion studies a) in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Robert Jan Verkes (Dept Psychiatry, Radboud University Nijmegen) and b) in humans and monkeys to characterize the relative contributions of serotonin and dopamine to activation vs. inhibitory behaviour under appetitive vs. aversive motivation: Roshan Cools (Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour (Radboud University Nijmegen) 6. Serotonin and romantic love: Freddy van der Veen (Dept Psychiatry) and Sandra Langeslag (Dept Psychology) 7. Cortical GABA function in alcoholism: John Krystal (Yale University, West Haven) 8. Identification of viable embryos in IVF and ICSI by amino acid measurement: Hikke van Doorninck (Dept Obstetrics/Clinical genetics) 9. Biochemical markers and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, i.e. amino acids, HVA, neopterin, S100B and BDNF: Willem Verhoeven/Amir Ahmed (Vincent van Gogh Institute, Venray) and Marcel Olde Rikkert (Dept Geriatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen) 10. Psychiatric disorders in adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome, i.e. amino acids, HVA and neopterin: Willem Verhoeven (Vincent van Gogh Institute, Venray) and Hokken-Koelega/Elbrich Siemensma (Children Endocrinology, Sophia Hospital, Erasmus MC) 11. Biomarkers in Down syndrome, i.e. amino acids, HVA, neopterin and beta-amyloid peptides: Willem Verhoeven (Vincent van Gogh Institute, Venray), and Tonnie Coppus and Cock van Duijn (Dept Epidemiology)
C. Research Support.

TP 97.055 (Agr. 10760) Tuiten (PI)
Unilever Research, The Netherlands Norharman, mood and behaviour The goal of this study was to examine the role of the naturally occurring β-carboline norharman (in relation with food intake) in mood and behavior in healthy volunteers. Role: Co-investigator 985-10-003 Fekkes (PI) Curriculum_Vitae_Engels_Durk_Fekkes_2011_6924688.doc The role of norharman in alcohol dependence and smoking The goal of this project was to study the role of norharman in alcohol dependence and smoking, and to evaluate the potential inhibitory role of norharman on the urge for alcohol and nicotine use. Role: PI MEC 186.705/2000/9 Van der Cammen (PI) Numico Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands Transmethylation processes in fibroblasts of patients with probable Alzheimer's disease The goal of this project is to study putative abnormalities of transmethylation processes in fibroblasts obtained from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Role: Co-investigator EORTC 18991 Van Gool (PI) Organon Research, Oss, The Netherlands A prospective study to characterize psychiatric symptoms and syndromes in cancer patients treated with interferon alpha combined with the assessment of biochemical and immunological parameters The major goals of this study are the description and characterization of psychiatric symptoms induced by interferon alpha treatment and to relate these with changes in some biochemical parameters. Role: Co-investigator SNO-T-08-078 Van Gool (PI) Stichting Nuts OHRA, The Netherlands Prophylactic treatment of peginterferon-associated psychopathology. The major goals of this project are to study the effect of the antidepressant escitalopram on psychopathology in HCV patients treated with PEG-interferon and ribavirin, and to relate these with changes in some biochemical parameters. Role: Co-investigator SNO-T-0902-047 Fekkes (PI) Fonds Nuts OHRA, The Netherlands Delirium in the old; causes and outcomes of delirium in patients 65-years and older in relation to biochemical parameters (MEC-2007-296). The goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between (1) abnormal concentrations of plasma amino acids, pterins, homovanillic acid and inflammatory parameters and (2) the severity, duration and outcome of delirium. Erasmus Trustfonds, The Netherlands Van der Cammen (PI) 10/01/10-10/01/11 Delirium in the old; early diagnosis of delirium The goal of this study is to find a biochemical profile at admission that predicts the occurrence of a delirium during the stay in a rehabilitation ward
D. Peer-reviewed publications (in chronological order).
1. Korf J, Boer PH, Fekkes D (1976). Release of cerebral cyclic AMP into push-pull perfusates in freely moving rats. Brain Res 113: 551-561.
2. Visser TJ, Fekkes D, Docter R, Hennemann G (1978). Sequential deiodination of thyroxine in rat liver homogenate. Biochem J 174: 221-229.
3. Visser TJ, Fekkes D, van Overmeeren-Kaptein E, Docter R, Hennemann G (1979). Mechanism of action of rat liver enzymes catalyzing the reductive deiodination of iodothyronines. J
80: 24-25P.
4. Visser TJ, Fekkes D, Docter R, Hennemann G (1979). Kinetics of enzymic reductive deiodination of iodothyronines; effect of pH. Biochem J 179: 489-495.
Curriculum_Vitae_Engels_Durk_Fekkes_2011_6924688.doc 5. Fekkes D, van Overmeeren-Kaptein E, Docter R, Hennemann G, Visser TJ (1979). Location of rat liver iodothyronine deiodinating enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum. Biochim Biophys
587: 12-19.
6. Visser TJ, van Overmeeren-Kaptein E, Fekkes D, Docter R, Hennemann G (1979). Inhibition of iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase by thioureylenes; structure-activity relationship. FEBS Lett 103:
7. Fekkes D, van Overmeeren E, Hennemann G, Visser TJ (1980). Solubilization and partial characterization of rat liver iodothyronine deiodinases. Biochim Biophys Acta 613: 41-51.
8. Docter R, Bos G, Krenning EP, Fekkes D, Visser TJ, Hennemann G (1981). Inherited thyroxine excess: a serum abnormality due to an increased affinity for modified albumin. Clin
15: 363-371.
9. Fekkes D, Hennemann G, Visser TJ (1982). Inhibition of iodothyronine deiodinase by phenolphthalein dyes; structure-activity relationship. FEBS Lett 137: 40-44.
10. Fekkes D, Hennemann G, Visser TJ (1982). Evidence for a single enzyme in rat liver catalysing the deiodination of the tyrosyl and the phenolic ring of iodothyronines. Biochem J 201:
11. Fekkes D, Hennemann G, Visser TJ (1982). One enzyme for the 5'-deiodination of 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine and 3',5'-diiodothyronine in rat liver. Biochem Pharmacol 31:
12. Docter R, Krenning EP, Bos G, Fekkes D, Hennemann G (1982). Evidence that the uptake of tri-iodo-L-thyronine by human erythrocytes is carrier-mediated but not energy-dependent.
Biochem J 208: 27-34.
13. Fekkes D, Hennemann G, Visser TJ (1983). Properties of detergent-dispersed iodothyronine 5- and 5'-deiodinase activities from rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta 742: 324-333.
14. Visser TJ, Fekkes D, Otten MH, Mol JA, Docter R, Hennemann G (1984). Deiodination and conjugation of thyroid hormone in rat liver. In: Hormones and Cell Regulation; Dumont, J.E.,
Nunez, J. (eds.), Elsevier Science Publishers Amsterdam; 8: 179-191.
15. Van Bemmelen FJ, Schouten MJ, Fekkes D, Bruinvels J (1985). Succinic semialdehyde as a substrate for the formation of τ-aminobutyric acid. J Neurochem 45: 1471-1474.
16. Fekkes D, Bruinvels J (1986). Serine and folate metabolism in fibroblasts from episodic psychotic patients with psychedelic symptoms. Biol Psychiatry 21: 951-959.
17. Bruinvels J, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L (1986). Disturbances of serine metabolism and endogenous formation of ß-carbolines in a group of episodic psychotic patients. Brit J
89: 476P.
18. Bruinvels J, Pepplinkhuizen L, Fekkes D (1988). Derangement of one-carbon metabolism in episodic schizoaffective psychoses. Pharmacopsychiatry 21: 28-32.
19. Bruinvels J, Pepplinkhuizen L, Fekkes D (1988). Serine metabolism, beta-carbolines and psychoses. In: Huether G., Ed. Amino Acid Availability and Brain Function in Health and
, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 363-370.
20. Klompenhouwer JL, Fekkes D, van Hulst AM, Moleman P, Pepplinkhuizen L, Mulder PGH (1990). Seasonal variations in binding of 3H-paroxetine to blood platelets in healthy volunteers:
Indications for a gender difference. Biol Psychiatry 28: 509-517.
21. Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Bruinvels J (1991). Changes in serine metabolism by a serum factor present in a group of episodic psychotic patients. Biol Psychiatry 30: 966-972.
22. Van der Mast RC, Fekkes D, Moleman P, Pepplinkhuizen L (1991). Is postoperative delirium related to reduced plasma tryptophan? Lancet 338: 851-852.
23. Fekkes D, Schouten MJ, Pepplinkhuizen L, Bruinvels J, Lauwers W, Brinkman UA (1992). Norharman, a normal body constituent. Lancet 339: 506.
24. Fekkes D, Bode WT (1993). Occurrence and partition of the ß-carboline norharman in rat organs. Life Sci 52: 2045-2054.
25. Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Verheij R ,Bruinvels J (1994). Abnormal plasma levels of serine, methionine and taurine in transient acute polymorphic psychosis. Psychiatry Res 51: 11-18.
26. De Knegt RJ, Schalm SW, van der Rijt CD, Fekkes D, Dalm E, Hekking-Weyma I (1994). Extracellular brain glutamate during acute liver failure and during acute hyperammonemia
simulating acute liver failure. J Hepatol 20: 19-26.
Curriculum_Vitae_Engels_Durk_Fekkes_2011_6924688.doc 27. Bax WA, Renzenbrink GJ, van der Linden EA, Zijlstra FJ, van Heuven-Nolsen D, Fekkes D, Bos E, Saxena PR (1994). Low-dose aspirin inhibits platelet-induced contraction of the human
isolated coronary artery; a role for additional 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonism against
coronary vasospasm? Circulation 89: 623-629.
28. Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Verheij R, Bruinvels J (1994). Niveles plasmaticos anormales de serina, metionina y taurina en la psicosis polymorfica aguda transitoria. Focus on Psychiatry
3: 68-69.
29. Timmerman L, Verheij R, Fekkes D (1994). Norharman and platelet serotonin in panic disorder patients compared with healthy controls. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 4 (3): 353-354.
30. Rijn-van den Meijdenberg JCC, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Verhoeven WMA, Wilson JHP, Jansen HML, Ederveen AB (1994). Acute intermittent porphyria and disturbances in amino-acid
metabolism in a psychiatric in-patient population. Eur Psychiatry 9: 249-253.
31. Cappendijk SLT, Fekkes D, Dzoljic MR (1994). The inhibitory effect of norharman on morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats: comparison with ibogaine. Behav Brain Res 65: 117-119.
32. Van Gelderen GJ, Fekkes D, Timmerman L, Pepplinkhuizen L (1994). The significance of ß- carbolines in psychiatry [De betekenis van ß-carbolines in de psychiatrie]. Acta
6 (4): 61-65.
33. Cappendijk SLT, Fekkes D, Dzoljic MR (1994). Norharman - endogenous inhibitor of morphine withdrawal. Regulatory Peptides 54: 39-40.
34. Timmerman L, Fekkes D, de Beurs P (1995). Provocatie testen bij paniekstoornis, een overzicht. COBO-bulletin 1: 42-47.
35. Tuiten A, Panhuysen G, Koppeschaar H, Fekkes D, Pijl H, Frölich M, Krabbe P, Everaerd W (1995). Stress, serotonergic function, and mood in users of oral contraceptives.
Psychoneuroendocrinology 20 (3): 323-334.
36. Fekkes D, Timmerman L, Pepplinkhuizen L (1995). Tryptophan and serotonin in panic disorder and depression: effect of clomipramine treatment. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 5 (3): 286-287.
37. Fekkes D, van Dalen A, Edelman M, Voskuilen A (1995). Validation of the determination of amino acids in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using automated
derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde. J Chromatogr B 669: 177-186.
38. Timmerman L, Fekkes D, de Beurs P (1995). Provocatie testen bij paniekstoornis, een overzicht. Medisch Journaal Delft 4: 175-180.
39. Tuinier S, Verhoeven WMA, Scherders MJWT, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L (1995). Neuropsychiatric and biological characteristics of X-linked MAO-A deficiency syndrome. A
single case intervention study. New Trends Exp Clin Psychiatry XI (4): 99-107.
40. Steegmans PHA, Fekkes D, Hoes AW, Bak AAA, van der Does E, Grobbee DE (1996). Low serum cholesterol concentration and serotonin metabolism in men. Brit Med J 312: 221.
41. Fekkes D, Bode WT, Zijlstra FJ, Pepplinkhuizen L (1996). Eicosanoid and amino acid metabolism in transient acute psychoses with psychedelic symptoms. Prostaglandins,
Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
54 (4): 261-264.
42. Steegmans PHA, Grobbee DE, Fekkes D, Hoes AW (1996) Low serum cholesterol and serotonin metabolism (Letter). Brit Med J 312: 1298-1299.
43. Fekkes D (1996). State-of-the-art of high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of amino acids in physiological samples. J Chromatogr B 682: 3-22.
44. Van der Mast RC, van den Broek WW, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Roest FHJ (1996). Delirium after cardiac surgery: The possible role of tryptophan in relation to the other neutral
aminoacids. Adv Exp Med Biol 398: 93-96.
45. Pepplinkhuizen L, Fekkes D, Timmerman L (1996). Norharman and anxiety disorders. Acta
Neuropsychiatr 8 (4): 93-95.
46. Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L (1997). Amino acid studies in transient acute polymorphic psychosis. Amino Acids 12: 107-117.
47. Fekkes D, Huijmans JGM, Voskuilen-Kooyman ACC (1997). Analysis of primary amino acids in urine by an automated HPLC method: comparison with ion exchange chromatography. Amino
13: 26.
48. Verheij R, Timmerman L, Passchier J, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L (1997). Trait anxiety, stress coping and norharman. Psychological Reports, Perceptual and motor skills 80: 51-59.
Curriculum_Vitae_Engels_Durk_Fekkes_2011_6924688.doc 49. Verkes RJ, Fekkes D, Zwinderman AH, Hengeveld MW, van der Mast RC, Tuyl JP, Kerkhof AJFM, van Kempen GMJ (1997). Platelet serotonin and [3H]-paroxetine binding correlate with
recurrence of suicidal behavior. Psychopharmacology 132:89-94.
50. Fekkes D, Timmerman L, Pepplinkhuizen L (1997). Effects of clomipramine on plasma amino Neuropsychopharmacol 7: 235-239.
51. Verhoeven WMA, Rijn-van den Meydenberg JCC, Hofma E, Tuinier S, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhui- zen L (1997). Amino acids, norharman and serotonergic parameters in schizophrenia; clinical
and biochemical effects of treatment with risperidone. New Trends Exp Clin Psychiatry XIII
(2): 117-126.
52. Tuinier S, Verhoeven WMA, Van den Berg YWM, Coppus AMW, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Thijssen JHH (1998). Neurobiology of stereotyped behaviour. Genetic Counseling 9 (2): 165-
53. Fekkes D, van der Cammen TJM, van Loon CPM, Verschoor C, van Harskamp F, de Koning I, Schudel WJ, Pepplinkhuizen L (1998). Abnormal amino acid metabolism in patients with early
stage Alzheimer dementia. J Neural Transmission 105: 287-294.
54. Stronks DL, Tulen JHM, Verheij R, Boomsma F, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Mantel GWH, Passchier J (1998). Serotonergic, catecholaminergic and cardiovascular reactions to mental
stress in female migraine patients. A controlled study. Headache 38 (4): 270-280.
55. Verkes RJ, van der Mast RC, Kerkhof AJFM, Fekkes D, Hengeveld MW, Tuyl JP, van Kempen GMJ (1998). Platelet 5-HT, MAO activity and 3H-paroxetine binding related to impulsive suicide
attempts and borderline personality disorder. Biol Psychiatry 43: 740-746.
56. Storimans CWJM, Fekkes D, van Dalen A, Bleeker-Wagemakers ED, Oosterhuis JA (1998). Serotoninergic status in patients with hereditary vascular retinopathy syndrome. Br J
82: 897-900.
57. Markus CR, Panhuysen G, Tuiten A, Koppeschaar H, Fekkes D, Peters ML (1998) Does carbohydrate rich, protein poor food ameliorate mood and cognitive performance of stress
prone persons when subjected to a stressful task? Appetite 31: 49-65.
58. Verkes RJ, Hengeveld MW, van der Mast RC, Fekkes D, van Kempen GMJ (1998). Mood correlates with whole blood serotonin, but not with glucose measures in patients with recurrent
suicidal behavior Psych Res 80: 239-248.
59. Verhoeven WMA, Tuinier S, van den Berg YWMM, Coppus AMW, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Thijssen JHH (1999). Stress and self-injurious behavior; hormonal and serotonergic parameters
in mentally retarded subjects. Pharmacopsychiatry 32: 13-20.
60. Van der Mast RC, van den Broek WW, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Habbema JDF (1999). Incidence of and preoperative predictors for delirium after cardiac surgery. J Psychosom Res
46: 479-483.
61. Verhoeven WMA, Marijnissen G, van Ooy JM, Tuinier S, van den Berg YWMM, Pepplinkhuizen L, Fekkes D (1999). Dysperceptions and serotonergic parameters in borderline personality
disorders: effects of treatment with risperidone. New Trends Exp Clin Psychiatry XV (1): 9-16.
62. Verhoeven WMA, Fekkes D (1999). Norharman - is it an exclusively endogenous modulator of behavior? (Letter). Pharmacopsychiatry 32: 160.
63. Van der Mast RC, van den Broek WW, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Habbema JDF (2000). Is delirium after cardiac surgery related to plasma amino acids and physical condition? J
Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
12 (1): 57-63.
64. Van der Mast RC, Fekkes D (2000). Serotonin and amino acids: partners in delirium pathophysiology? Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry 5 (2): 125-131.
65. Fekkes D, Voskuilen-Kooyman A, Jankie R, Huijmans J (2000). Precise analysis of primary amino acids in urine by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography method:
comparison with ion-exchange chromatography. J Chromatogr B 744: 183-188.
66. Markus RC, Olivier B, Panhuysen GEM, van der Gugten J, Alles MS, Tuiten A, Westenberg HGM, Fekkes D, Koppeschaar HPR, de Haan EHF (2000). The bovine protein alpha-
lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and
in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and
improves mood under stress. Am J Clin Nutrition 71: 1536-1544.
Curriculum_Vitae_Engels_Durk_Fekkes_2011_6924688.doc 67. Fekkes D, Tuiten A, Bom I, Pepplinkhuizen L (2001). Tryptophan: a precursor for the endogenous synthesis of norharman in man. Neurosci Lett 303: 145-148.
68. Cappendijk SLT, Fekkes D, van Dalen A, Pepplinkhuizen L (2001). The acute effects of norharman on cocaine self-administration and sensorimotor function in male Wistar rats. Eur
11: 233-239.
69. Mooren R, Verhoeven WMA, Tuinier S, van den Berg YWMM, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L (2001). Olanzapine in relapsing schizophrenia; Efficacy and serotonergic parameters. Eur J
15 (2): 91-100.
70. Hoekstra R, van den Broek WW, Fekkes D, Bruijn JA, Mulder PGM, Pepplinkhuizen L (2001). Effect of electroconvulsive therapy on biopterin and large neutral amino acids in severe,
medication-resistent depression. Pych Res 103 (2-3): 115-123.
71. Fekkes D, Tuiten A, Bom I, Pepplinkhuizen L (2001). Pharmacokinetics of the β-carboline norharman in man. Life Sci 69: 2113-2121.
72. Doorakkers MCh, Verhoeven WMA, Tuinier S, van den Berg YWMM, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L (2001). Psychopathology, serotonergic parameters and sertindole; results of a preliminary
study in schizophrenia. New Trends Exp Clin Psychiatry XVII (1-4): 25-30.
73. Spijkerman R, van den Eijnden R, van de Mheen D, Bongers I, Fekkes D (2002). The impact of smoking and drinking on plasma levels of norharman. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 12: 61-71.
74. Van der Cammen TJM, Fekkes D (2002). Vitamin B12, amino acids and dementia. Wien Klin
Wochenschr 114 (10-11): XXII-XXIII.
75. Hoekstra R, Fekkes D (2002). Pteridines and affective disorders. Acta Neuropsychiatr 14 (3):
76. Borgdorff P, Fekkes D, Tangelder GJ (2002). Hypotension caused by extracorporeal circulation: serotonin from pump-activated platelets triggers nitric oxide release. Circulation 106: 2588-
77. Fekkes D, Van Gool AR (2003). Interferon, tryptophan and depression. Acta Neuropsychiatr 15
78. Pepplinkhuizen L, van der Heijden FMMA, Tuinier S, Verhoeven WMA, Fekkes D (2003). The acute transient polymorphic psychosis: a biochemical subtype of the cycloid psychosis. Acta
15 (1): 38-43.
79. Van der Heijden FMMA, Verhoeven WMA, Fekkes D, Sijben AES, Tuinier S (2003). Quetiapine in relapsing schizophrenia: clinical efficacy and effect on monoaminergic parameters. Acta
15 (3): 133-139.
80. Van Gool AR, Fekkes D, Kruit WHJ, Mulder PGH, Ten Hagen TTL, Bannink M, Maes M, Eggermont AMM (2003). Serum amino acids, biopterin and neopterin during long-term
immunotherapy with interferon-alpha in high-risk melanoma patients. Pych Res 119: 125-
81. Fekkes D, Spijkerman R, Cappendijk SLT, Bongers IMB, van den Eijnden RJJM (2003). The role of norharman in alcohol dependence and smoking: The potential inhibitory role of norharman on
the urge for alcohol and nicotine use. In: Schippers GM and Broekman TG, Eds. Alcohol, drugs
and tobacco research 2001-2002
, Krips BV, Meppel, The Netherlands, 6-7.
82. Hoekstra R, Fekkes D, van de Wetering BJM, Pepplinkhuizen L, Verhoeven WMA (2003). The effect of light therapy on biopterin, neopterin and tryptophan in patients with seasonal affective
disorder. Pych Res 120: 37-42.
83. Van den Eijnden RJJM, Spijkerman R, Fekkes D (2003). Craving for cigarettes among low and high dependent smokers: impact of norharman. Addict Biol 8: 463-472.
84. Van den Baar MTM, Fekkes D, van den Hoogenband CR, Duivenvoorden HJ, Pepplinkhuizen L (2004). Plasma amino acids and sports injuries. Amino Acids 26: 71-76.
85. Van der Heijden FMMA, Tuinier S, Fekkes D, Sijben AES, Kahn RS, Verhoeven WMA (2004). Neuropsychopharmacol 14: 259-265.
86. Tomassen SFB, Fekkes D, de Jonge HR, Tilly BC (2004). Osmotic swelling-provoked release of organic osmolytes in human intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 286: C1417-
Curriculum_Vitae_Engels_Durk_Fekkes_2011_6924688.doc 87. Klumpers UMH, Tulen JHM, Timmerman L, Fekkes D, Loonen AJM, Boomsma F (2004). Responsivity to stress in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder due to childhood sexual
abuse. Psychological Reports 94(2): 408-410.
88. Van Gool AR, van Ojik HH, Kruit WHJ, Bannink M, Mulder PGH, Eggermont AMM, Stoter G, Fekkes D (2004). Pegylated interferon-alpha 2b treatment in melanoma patients: influence on
amino acids, 5-HIAA and pteridine plasma concentrations. Anti-Cancer Drug 15 (6): 587-
89. Fekkes D, Bernard HF, Cappendijk SLT (2004). Norharman and alcohol-dependency in male Wistar rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 14: 361-366.
90. Van Gool AR, van Ojik HH, Kruit WHJ, Mulder PGH, Fekkes D, Bannink M, Scharpe S, Stoter G, Eggermont AMM, Maes M, Verkerk R (2004). Serum activity of prolyl endopeptidase, but
not of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, is decreased by immunotherapy with IFN-alpha in high-risk
melanoma patients. J Interferon Cytokine Res 24 (7): 411-415.
91. Van der Heijden FMMA, Fekkes D, Tuinier S, Sijben AES, Kahn RS, Verhoeven WMA (2005). Amino acids in schizophrenia: evidence for lower tryptophan availability during treatment with
atypical antipsychotics? J Neural Transm 112(4): 577-585.
92. Bannink M, Kruit WHJ, Van Gool AR, Mulder PGH, Sleijfer S, Eggermont AMM, Stoter G, Fekkes D (2005). Platelet MAO activity during treatment with pegylated interferon-alfa in
melanoma patients. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29: 109-114.
93. Ter Borg PCJ, Fekkes D, Vrolijk JM, van Buuren HR (2005). The relation between plasma tyrosine concentration and fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis.
BMC Gastroenterol 5(1): 11-17.
94. Booij L, Van der Does AJ, Haffmans PM, Riedel WJ, Fekkes D, Blom MJ (2005). The effects of high-dose and low-dose tryptophan depletion on mood and cognitive functions of remitted
depressed patients. J Psychopharmacol 19(3): 267-275.
95. Fekkes D, Spijkerman R, Bongers I, van den Eijnden R (2005). The role of norharman in alcohol dependence and smoking: the potential inhibitory role of norharman on the urge for
alcohol and nicotine use. J Substance Use 10(2-3): 106-118.
96. Kilkens TOC, Honig, A, Fekkes D, Brummer RJM (2005). The effects of an acute serotonergic challenge on brain-gut responses in irritable bowel syndrome patients and
controls. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 22: 865-874.
97. Hoekstra R, Fekkes D, Loonen AJ, Pepplinkhuizen L, Tuinier S, Verhoeven WM (2006). Neuropsychopharmacol 16: 71-77.
98. Van Beveren NJM, van der Spelt JJ, de Haan L, Fekkes D (2006). Schizophrenia-associated neural growth factors in peripheral blood. A review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 16: 469-480.
99. Van der Cammen TJM, Tiemeier H, Engelhart MJ, Fekkes D (2006). Abnormal neurotransmitter metabolite levels in Alzheimer patients with a delirium. Int J Geriatr
21: 838-843.
Tiemeier H, Fekkes D, Hofman A, van Tuijl HR, Kiliaan AJ, Breteler MMB (2006). Plasma pterins and folate in late life depression: The Rotterdam study. Psych Res 145: 199-206.
Hoekstra R, Fekkes D, Pepplinkhuizen L, Loonen AJM, Tuinier S, Verhoeven WMA (2006). Nitric oxide and neopterin in bipolar affective disorder. Neuropsychobiology 54: 75-
Verhoeven WMA, van Ravenswaay-Arts CMA, de Leeuw N, Fekkes D, van der Heijden FFMA, Egger JIM, Tuinier S (2006). Disturbed serine metabolism and psychosis in a patient with
a de novo translocation (2;10) (p23;q22.1). Genet Couns 17 (4): 421-428.
Fekkes D, Bannink M, Kruit WHJ, van Gool AR, Mulder PGH, Sleijfer S, Eggermont AMM, Stoter G (2007). Influence of pegylated interferon-α therapy on plasma levels of citrulline and
arginine in melanoma patients. Amino Acids 32: 121-126.
Verveer J, Huizer K, Fekkes D, van Beveren NJM (2007). Genexpressieprofilering bij schizofrenie. Een overzicht. Tijdschr Psychiatr 49: 7-16.
Fekkes D, Voskuilen-Kooijman A (2007) Quantitation of total biopterin and tetrahydrobiopterin in plasma. Clin Biochem 40: 411-413.
Curriculum_Vitae_Engels_Durk_Fekkes_2011_6924688.doc Coppus AW, Fekkes D, Verhoeven WMA, Tuinier S, Egger JIM, van Duijn CM (2007). Plasma amino acids and neopterin in healthy persons with Down's syndrome. J Neural
114: 1041-1045.
Birkenhäger TK, van den Broek WW, Fekkes D, Mulder PG, Moleman P, Bruijn JA (2007). Lithium addition in antidepressant-resistant depression: effects on platelet 5-HT,
plasma 5-HT and plasma 5-HIAA concentration. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol
31: 1084-1088.
Bannink M, Fekkes D, Van Gool AR, Kruit WH, Sleijfer S, van der Holt B, Eggermont AM, Stoter G, Hengeveld MW (2007). Interferon-alpha influences tryptophan metabolism without
inducing psychiatric side effects. Neuropsychobiology 55: 225-231.
Evers EAT, van der Veen FM, Fekkes D, Jolles J (2007). Serotonin and Cognitive Flexibility: Neuroimaging Studies into the Effect of Acute Tryptophan Depletion in Healthy
Volunteers. Curr Med Chem 14: 2989-2995.
Verhoeven WMA, Egger JIM, Horst KBH ter, Fekkes D, Tuinier (2007). Aripiprazole: a compound in the search of the real responders in schizophrenia. Clinical Neuropsychiatry
4: 76-82.
Wan H, Versnel MA, Leijten LME, van Helden-Meeuwsen CG, Fekkes D, Leenen PJM, Khan NA, Benner R, Kiekens RCM (2008). Chorionic gonadotropin induces dendritic cells to
express a tolerogenic phenotype. J Leukoc Biol 83: 894-901.
Wesseldijk F, Fekkes D, Huygen FJPM, van de Heide-Mulder M, Zijlstra FJ (2008). Increased plasma glutamate, glycine, and arginine levels in complex regional pain syndrome
type 1. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 52: 688-694.
Wesseldijk F, Fekkes D, Huygen FJPM, Bogaerts-Taal E, Zijlstra FJ (2008). Increased plasma serotonin in complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Anesth Analg 106: 1862-1867.
Doornbos B, Fekkes D, Tanke MA, de Jonge P, Korf J (2008). Sequential serotonin and noradrenalin associated processes involved in postpartum blues. Prog Neuro-
Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry
32: 1320-1325.
Van Gool AR, Verkerk R, Fekkes D, Sleijfer S, Bannink M, Kruit WHJ, van der Holt B, Scharpé S, Eggermont AMM, Stoter G, Hengeveld MW (2008). Plasma activity of prolyl
endopeptidase in relation to psychopathology during immunotherapy with IFN-α in patients
with renal cell carcinoma. J Interferon Cytokine Res 28: 283-286.
Van Gool AR, Verkerk R, Fekkes D, Bannink M, Sleijfer S, Kruit WHJ, van der Holt B, Scharpé S, Eggermont AMM, Stoter G, Hengeveld MW (2008). Neurotoxic and
neuroprotective metabolites of kynurenine in patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with
interferon-alpha: course and relationship with psychiatric status. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
62: 597-602.
Hoekstra R, Fekkes D, Verhoeven W (2008). De biochemie van stemmingsstoornissen. Neuropraxis 6: 194-198.
Hol JW, Klimek M, van der Heide-Mulder M, Stronks D, Vincent AJ, Klein J, Zijlstra FJ, Fekkes D (2009). Awake craniotomy induces fewer changes in the plasma amino acid profile
than craniotomy under general anesthesia. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 21:98–107.
Fekkes D, van Gool AR, Bannink M, Sleijfer S, Kruit WHJ, van der Holt B, Eggermont AMM, Stoter G, Hengeveld MW (2009). Nitric oxide production and monoamine oxidase activity in
cancer patients during interferon-alpha therapy. Amino Acids 37:703-708.
Coppus AW, Fekkes D, Verhoeven WMA, van Duijn CM, Evenhuis HM (2009). Neopterin and the risk of dementia in persons with Down syndrome. Neurosci Lett 458:60-64.
Van Veen JF, van Vliet IM, de Rijk RH, van Pelt J, Mertens B, Fekkes D, Zitman FG (2009). Tryptophan depletion affects the autonomic stress response in generalized social
anxiety disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34: 1590-1594.
Coppus AW, Fekkes D, Verhoeven WMA, Tuinier S, van Duijn CM (2010). Plasma levels of nitric oxide related amino acids in demented subjects with Down syndrome are related to
neopterin concentrations. Amino Acids 38: 923-928.
Krop M, Ozünal ZG, Chai W, de Vries R, Fekkes D, Bouhuizen AM, Garrelds IM, Danser AH (2010). Mast cell degranulation mediates bronchoconstriction via serotonin and not via
renin release. Eur J Pharmacol 640(1-3): 185-189.


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