We fetch to your notice a new website where you can buy kamagra jelly australia at a low cost with fast delivery to Australia.


J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29: 211–215 Copyright C Munksgaard 2002 Printed in Denmark . All rights reserved Frank Schwarz1, Nicole Arweiler2,
Thomas Georg3 and Elmar Reich2

Desensitizing effects of an Er:YAG 1DepartmentofOralandMaxillofacial Surgery, Ludwig Maximilians University,Munich, Germany; 2Department of Periodontology and Conservative Dentistry,University of Saarland, Homburg, Germany;3Institute of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, University ofSaarland, Homburg, Germany Schwarz F, Arweiler N, Georg T, Reich E: Desensitizing effects of anEr:YAG laser on hypersensitive dentine. A controlled, prospective clinical study.
J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29: 211–215.
C Munksgaard, 2002.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the desensitizing
effects of an Er:YAG laser (KEY IIA, KaVo, Germany) and Dentin ProtectorA
(Vivadent, Germany) on cervically exposed hypersensitive dentine.
Method: A group of 30 patients showing a total of 104 contralateral pairs of
hypersensitive and caries-free teeth was selected and randomly allocated in a split-
mouth design to either (1) Er:YAG laser (80 mJ/pulse, 3 Hz), or (2) the appli-
cation of Dentin ProtectorA (polyurethane-isocyanate 22.5%; methylenechloride
77.5%) whereat one pair served as an untreated control in each patient. The
degree of sensitivity to a thermal stimulus was determined qualitatively with an
evaporative stimulus defined as a 3-s air blast at a distance of 2 mm from each
site to be tested. A qualitative registration of the degree of discomfort was
determined according to an arbitrary pain scale in 4 degrees. Recordings were
assessed before treatment, immediately after, 1 week, 2 and 6 months after treat-
ment by 1 blinded examiner.
Results: Both treatment forms resulted in significant improvements of discomfort
immediately after and 1 week post treatment. After 2 months, the discomfort
in the Dentin ProtectorA group increased up to 65% of the baseline score and
even up to 90% after 6 months, whereas the effect of the laser remained at the
same level that was achieved immediately after treatment. The differences im-
mediately after, 1 week, 2 and 6 months post treatment between both groups were
statistically high significant (pр0.001; respectively). Compared to the untreated
control group, both treatment forms resulted in a significant reduction of dis-
comfort at each follow-up examination.
laser; dentine hypersensitivity; polyurethane- Conclusion: It was concluded that desensitizing of hypersensitive dentine with an
Er:YAG laser is effective and the maintenance of the positive result was moreprolonged than with Dentin ProtectorA.
theory’’, movements of fluid within ex- Flynn et al. 1985, Scherman & Jacobs- sodium fluoride, are also effective (Ged- en 1992). So far, there is relatively little or solution resulted in positive desensit- 1990). According to the ‘‘hydrodynamic various laser systems are discussed for a ide) lasers are limited due to their ther- tivity treatment whilst on the trial.
ness & Löe 1964) was recorded on the Study design
an untreated control in each patient.
and even 20,000 ¿ greater than the and left sides. All patients were treated rectly result in a decrease of dentine hy- persensitivity. In this context, the appli- pulse, and a repetition rate of 3 Hz with Oral hygiene
structions given by the manufacturer.
ficial layers of the dentinal fluid. How- tern. All contralateral teeth received an Clinical measurements
hypersensitive teeth served as a control.
The degree of sensitivity to a evaporative Material and Methods
onds cold air blast (temperature range of Subject selection
19–20 æC) at a distance of 2 mm from the site to be tested. Sensitivity was assessed four degrees (Table 1). During testing the Statistical analysis
clinical parameters were calculated.
Table 1. Pain scale to assess the degree of surfaces. Criteria for exclusion from the ing to the distribution of the data, non- study were: (a) carious lesions on the se- lected or neighbouring teeth, (b) any de- and parametric tests (Student paired t- sensitizing therapy on the selected teeth during the last 6 months, (c) cervical fill- ings on the selected teeth. Other reasons of pр0.05 were accepted as statistically for exclusion were a history of allergy to Desensitizing effects of an Er:YAG laser Table 2. Mean degree of discomfort and standard deviation in all groups over 6 months (nΩ ductions of discomfort were unalteredeven 6 months following the initial The stars indicate statistically significant differences between groups (Wilcoxon signed ranks test) (n.s. pу0.05, * pр0.05, ** pр0.01, *** pр0.001).
tine hypersensitivity, whereas the use oflasers has often been propagated for thisindication. In previous clinical studies it Table 3. Mean gingival recessions (SD) in all groups over 6 months (nΩ30 patients) has been demonstrated that the pulsedNd:YAG laser is also an effective tool in reducing dentine hypersensitivity to cold air stimuli. It produced an immediate ef- Harper & Midda 1992, Gelskey et al.
1993, Gutknecht et al. 1997). It was pre-sumed that dentine may be fused during The stars indicate statistically significant differences between groups (paired t-test) (n.s.
pу0.05, * pр0.05, ** pр0.01, *** pр0.001).
Harper & Midda 1992, Gelskey et al.
1993). Similar results have also beenfound with the CO2 laser (Moritz et al.
Table 4. Mean plaque index (SD) in all groups over 6 months (nΩ30 patients) 1996). Its effectiveness is probably due to ments of fluid in the tubules, fusing the elimination of dentine hypersensitivity.
In this context it is important to mention The stars indicate statistically significant differences between groups (paired t-test) (n.s.
pу0.05, * pр0.05, ** pр0.01, *** pр0.001).
tubular diameters that are significantlywider (2¿) than those of non-sensitiveteeth, so it would appear that treatment detrimental pulpal effects or allergic re- focused at decreasing the radius is a pre- tings of 80 mJ/pulse at 3 Hz, used in the present study, are lower than the ablation groups (pу0.05; respectively) (Table 3).
in all groups with progressive reductions (pу0.05; respectively) (Table 4).
insoluble salts in the exposed tubules are responsible for an obturation of the den- Discussion
after, 1 week, 2 and 6 months post treat- The results of the present clinical trial tivity of teeth. The pain threshold of the cally high significant (pр0.01; respec- nerve fibers seems to be lowered in pres- son & Brannström 1974, Olgart et al.
comfort throughout the study period.
1974). In this context it is important to torA. The results especially illustrate ef- frei waren ausgewa¨hlt und nach einem Zu- d’incomfort a e´te´ de´termine´ suivant une fallsprinzip einem Splitmouth-Design zuge- e´chelle de douleur arbitraire de 4 degre´s. Les (Ando et al. 1996, Hibst et al. 1996).
enregistrements ont e´te´ effectue´s avant le traitement, imme´diatement apre`s ainsi qu’u- Dentin ProtectorA (Polyurethan-Isocyanate ne semaine, 2 et 6 mois apre`s le traitement und ein Paar bei jedem Patienten diente als Re´sultats: Les deux types de traitement se
sont accompagne´s d’une diminutionde l’in- keitsgrad bezu¨glich eines thermischen Stimu- confort imme´diatement apre`s et 1 semaine ate, as the active substance, has not yet lus wurde qualitativ bestimmt, indem jede apre`s le traitement. Apre`s 2 mois, l’inconfort Stelle aus 2 mm Entfernung mit einem Luft- dans le groupe Dentin ProtecorA atteignait ably lead to the creation of a peripheral bla¨ser fu¨r 3 Sekunden getrocknet wurde. Ent- 65% du score initial et meˆme 90% apre`s 6 intrinsic barrier within the lumen of the sprechend einer Schmerzskala mit Einteilung mois tandis que l’effet obtenu par le laser de- dentinal tubules. In this context the re- nach vier Graden wurde eine qualitative Be- meurait au meˆme niveau que celui atteint jus- urteilung des Grades der Beeintra¨chtigung te apre`s le traitement. Les diffe´rences imme´- diates, 1 semaine, 2 et 6 mois apre`s le traite- Behandlung, direkt anschließend, sowie eine ment entre les deux groupes e´taient tre`s significatives (pр0.001). Compare´es au grou- handlung durch einen bezu¨glich der Therapie pe controˆle non-traite´, les deux traitements able for the penetration of the resin-ad- re´sultaient en une re´duction significative de Ergebnisse: Direkt nach der Behandlung und
l’inconfort lors de chaque examen.
Conclusion: La de´sensibilisation dentinaire
lungsarten eine signifikante Verbesserung der avec le laser Er:YAG est efficace et le main- Beeintra¨chtigung zur Folge. Nach zwei Mo- tien de son re´sultat positif plus prolonge´ naten erho¨hte sich in der Dentin ProtextorA- Gruppe die Beeintra¨chtigung auf Werte bis removal of this peripheral intrinsic bar- zu 65% der Ausgangswerte und sogar auf bis References
Wirkung des Lasers auf dem gleichen Niveau Addy, M. (1990) Etiology and clinical impli- wie direkt nach der Behandlung blieb. Die cations of dentine hypersensitivity. Dental Clinics of North America 34, 503–514.
Addy, M. & Dowell, P. (1983) Dentine hyper- control (Addy & Dowell 1983). This phe- sensitivity – a review. Clinical and in vitro hoch signifikant (pр0.001). Beide Behand- evaluation of treatment agents. Journal of lungsarten hatten im Vergleich zur unbehan- Clinical Periodontology 10, 351–363.
delten Kontrollgruppe bei jeder Nachunter- Ando, Y., Aoki, A., Watanabe, H. & Ishika- suchung eine signifikante Reduktion der Be- wa, I. (1996) Bactericidal effect of the Er:- YAG laser on periodontopathic bacteria.
Schlussfolgerung: Es wurde die Schlussfolge-
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 19, 190–
rung gezogen, dass die Desensibilisierung Aoki, A., Ando, A., Watanabe, H. & Ishika- Er:YAG-Laser effektiv ist und die Aufrecht- wa, I. (1996) I. In vitro studies on laser erhaltung der positiven Ergebnisse la¨nger an- Er:YAG laser. Journal of Periodontology
65, 1097–1106.
Blitzer, B. (1967) A consideration of the ity, especially while the 6 months results Re´sume´
possible causes of dentine hypersensitivity.
Effet de de´sensibilisation de dents hypersensi- Treatment by strontium-ion dentifrice.
bles par le laser Er:YAG. Une e´tude clinique Periodontics 5, 318–321.
the obtained positive results. Especially But: Le but de cette e´tude a e´te´ d’e´valuer et
de comparer les effets de´sensibilistateurs d’un laser Er:YAG (KEY IIA, KaVo, Alle- Sensory mechanism in dentine. Anderson, magne) et du Dentin ProtectorA (Vivadent, D. J. ed., pp. 73–79. Oxford: Pergamon.
Allemagne) sur la dentine hypersensible ex- Brannström, M., Linden, L. A. & Aström, Zusammenfassung
Methode: Un groupe de 30 patients avec 104
and pulp fluid: its significance in relation paires contralate´rales de dents hypersensibles to dental pain. Caries Research 1, 310.
Desensibilisierungswirkung des Er:YAG-La- non-carie´es a e´te´ se´lectionne´ et e´tudie´ selon Dowell, P. & Addy, M. (1983) Dentine-hyper- sers auf u¨berempfindliches Dentin. Eine kon- un mode`le de bouche divise´e soit (1) dans le sensitivity – A review, etiology, symptoms trollierte, prospektive klinische Studie groupe Er:YAG (80 mJ/impulsion, 3 Hz), ou and theories of pain production. Journal Ziel: Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es,
(2) par l’application de Dentin ProtecorA of Clinical Periodontology 10, 341–350.
die Desensibilisierungswirkung eines Er:Y- (isocyanate polyure´thane 22.5%; chlorure de Dowell, P., Addy, M. & Dummer, P. (1985) me´thyle`ne 77.5%), une paire servant de Dentine hypersensitivity: Aetiology, differ- contro¨le non-traite´ chez chaque patient. Le ential diagnosis and management. British degre´ de sensibilit´ a` un stimulus thermique a Dental Journal 158, 92–96.
u¨berempfindliches Dentin zu vergleichen.
e´te´ de´termine´ qualitativement a` l’aide d’un Flynn, J., Galloway, R. & Orchadson, R.
Methode: Es wurde eine Gruppe von 30 Pati-
stimulus d’e´vaporation de´fini a` 3 s de souffle a` une distance de 2 mm pour chaque site tes- teeth in the west of Scotland. Journal of Zahnpaaren, die u¨berempfindlich und karies- te´. Un enregistrement qualitatif du degre´ Dentistry 13, 230–236.
Desensitizing effects of an Er:YAG laser Gedalia, I., Brayer, L., Kalter, N., Richter, ionizing toothbrush in the control of den- Scherman, A. & Jacobsen, P. L. (1992) Man- M. & Stabholz, A. (1978) The effect of tinal hypersensitivity. Journal of Periodon- aging dentin hypersensitivity: what treat- fluoride and strontium application on den- tology 53, 353–359.
ment to recommend to patients. Journal of tine: in vivo and in vitro studies. Journal Midda, M. (1992) The use of lasers in peri- American Dental Association 123, 57–61.
of Periodontology 49, 269–272.
odontology. Current Opinion in Dentistry Silness, J. & Löe, H. (1964) Periodontal dis- Gelskey, S. C., White, J. M. & Pruthi, V. K.
2, 104–108.
Moritz, A., Gutknecht, N., Schoop, U., Wer- laser in the treatment of dental hypersens- nisch, J., Lampert, F. & Sperr, W. (1995) dition. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 22,
itivity. Scientific Journal 59, 377–386.
Effects of CO2 laser irradiation on treat- Graf, H. & Galasse, R. (1977). Morbidity, Takeda, F. H., Harashima, T., Kimura, Y. & sults of an in vitro study. Journal of Clin- hypersensitive teeth. Journal of Dental ical Laser Medicine and Surgery 13, 397–
Research 56 (special issue), 162, abstr. 479.
Gutknecht, N., Moritz, A., Dercks, H. W. & Moritz, A., Gutknecht, N., Schoop, U., Go- of laser. International Endodontic Journal Lampert, F. (1997) Treatment of hypersen- harkhay, K., Ebrahim, D., Wernisch, J. & 32, 32–39.
Walsh, J. T., Flotte, T. J. & Deutsch, T. F.
parison of the use of various settings in treated dental necks, in comparison with a (1989) Er:YAG laser ablation of tissue: Ef- an in vivo study. Journal of Clinical Laser fect of pulse duration and tissue type on Medicine & Surgery 15, 171–174.
study. Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine thermal damage. Lasers in Surgery and and Surgery 14, 27–32.
Medicine 9, 314–326.
Volpe, A. & King, W. (1972) Clinical study Olgart, L., Brannström, M. & Johnson, G.
Walsh, J. T. & Cummings, J. P. (1994) Effect evaluating the desensitizing effect of denti- (1974) Invasion of bacteria into dentinal of the dynamic optical properties of water tubules – experiment in vivo and in vitro.
on mid-infrared laser ablation. Lasers in Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 32, 61–70.
Surgery and Medicine 15, 295–305.
alin. Journal of Periodontology 43, 367–
Pick, R. M., Pecaro, B. C. & Silberman, C.
White, J. M., Goodis, H. E. & Rose, C. L.
J. (1985) The laser gingivectomy: The use (1987) Use of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser for Hibst, R., Stock, K., Gall, R. & Keller, U.
of CO2 laser for removal of phenytoin hy- intraoral soft tissue surgery. Lasers in perplasia. Journal of Periodontology 56,
Surgery and Medicine 7, 207–213.
ation. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 2922, 119–126.
Jensen, A. L. (1965) Hypersensitivity con- persensitivity. British Dental Journal 172,
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial clinical investigation. Journal of the Ameri- Rimondini, L., Baroni, C. & Carrassi, A.
can Dental Association 68, 216.
Johnson, G. & Brannström, M. (1974) The and non-sensitive dentine. Journal of Clin- sensitivity of dentine. Changes in relation ical Periodontology 22, 899–902.
to condition at exposed tubules aperture.
Schaeffer, M. L., Bixler, D. & YU, P.-L.
Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 32, 28–29.
(1971) The effectiveness of iontophoresis Johnson, R. H., Zulqar-Nain, B. J. & Koval, J. J. (1982) The effectiveness of an electro- Journal of Periodontology 42, 695.

Source: http://www.kavolaserdentistry.info/pages/studies/Desensitizing%20Effects%20of%20an%20ErYAG%20Laser%20on%20Hypersensitive%20Dentine%20-%20Schwarz%20et%20al%20-%202002.pdf


Sesión No. 5 Nombre: La Propiedad industrial en particular. Parte 2 Contextualización Una vez analizada la invención, corresponde estudiar dos figuras importantes como son: los modelos de utilidad y los diseños industriales, los primeros constituyen invenciones no tan complejas, es decir, ante la posibilidad de que lo que se busca patentar no pase el riguroso examen de f


http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/printdoc LexisNexis™ Academic Copyright 2003 The New York Times Company The New York Times June 29, 2003, Sunday, Late Edition - Final SECTION: Section 3; Page 1; Column 2; Money and Business/Financial Desk LENGTH: 2846 words HEADLINE: Who's Minding the Drugstore? BYLINE: By MELODY PETERSEN BODY: FEDERAL regulators decided last y

Copyright © 2010-2014 Medical Science