Mais la polymyxine n'est pas du tout absorbée dans le sang du système gastro-intestinal et n'a d'effet que dans l'intestin et est utile pour le traitement des infections intestinales azithromycine prix Internet en y faisant des achats permettant d’économiser jusqu'à soixante-dix pour cent, tout en étant sûr de la qualité des produits pharmaceutiques.
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 1(1): 22-24, 2009ISSN: 2041-2908 M axwell Scientific Organization, 2009
Effect of Aqueous-ethanolic Stem Bark Extract of Commiphora Africana on Blood
Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats
1A.D .T.Goji, 2A.A .U. Dikko, 3A.G . Bakari, 1A. M ohamm ed, 1I. Ezekiel, and 1Y. Tanko
¹Departm ent of Hu man ph ysio logy , Ah madu B ello U nive rsity, Z aria, N igeria
2Department of Human physiology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
3Departm ent of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika, Nigeria
This study was undertaken to determine the hypog lycemic effec t of Comm iphora africana
Burseraceae) stem bark aqueous-ethanolic extract in normoglycemic W istar rats. In one set of experiment,
graded doses of C. africana
stem bark aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) were sepa rately
administered to groups o f fasted norma l rats. The hypo glycem ic effect of C. africana
stem bark aqueous
ethan olic extrac t was com pared with th at of M etform in (250 mg/kg) in fasted norm al rats. Fo llowin g treatm ent,
relatively mode rate to high dose s of C. africana
(100, 200 and 400 mg /kg p.o ) produced a dos e-dep endent,
significant reduc tion (p< 0.05) in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. Three doses of the extract (100,
200 and 400 mg/kg) were administered orally. A significant decrease in the blood glucose levels after 5 and
7 day of administration with the doses of 200 mg/k g and 400mg/k g w as ob serve d w hen com pared to contro l.
As regard s to the dose of 100mg/kg there was no any significant decreased in the blood glucose levels when
compared to con trol. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins,
flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD ) in rats was calculated to be 3807.8 m g/kg
body we ight. In conclusio n the aque ous ethan olic extract of Comm iphora africana possesses
hypoglyc emicactivity in normoglycemic rats.
Key w ords: Comm iphora african,
hypoglycemic activity, phytochemicals.
scales; slas h red, p leasan tly scented, exuding
a clear gum. Has a creeping root system that spreads
Administration of various plant extract for the
several meters around the tree. Leaves trifoliate, leaflets
reduction of blood suga r levels of diabetics comprises an
cuneate at the base and with irregular and bluntly toothed
important aspect of the indigenous medicinal systems of
margins, waxy grey-green above with a sparse covering
many countries including Sri Lank a (Jayaw eera, 1982 ).
of hairs, lighter in color and more dens ely hairy below, up
Mo st of the plants prescribed for d ia be te s m ellitu s (D M )
to 4x2.5 cm, the middle leaflet larger than laterals.
are not edible (Atta-ur-Rahman and Zaman, 1989;
Flow ers in axillary clusters of 4-10; petals 4, red, not
Serasinghe et al.,
1990) and th erefore the studies on
fused, but forming a tube about 6 mm long. Fruits reddish,
edible plants which have a hypoglycemic effect would be
6-8 mm acros s but so metim es larger, almost stalkless,
of great value in the dietary management of the disease.
made up of a tough outer layer, which splits when ripe to
The oral hypoglycemic activity of the stem bark of
reveal a hard, furrowed stone embedded in a red, resinous
comm iphora africana
in normoglycemic healthy, Wistar
flesh. The generic name ‘Commiphora’ is based on the
Greek words ‘kommi’ (gum) and ‘phero’ (to bear). The
Com miphora africana
belongs to the family of
spec ific nam e simp ly me ans A frican. T he ob jective o f this
Burseraceae and a group of plant called M yrrh (Hanus et
research work is to de termine the effect of aqueous
2005; Dalziel and Hutchinson, 1956) and it is found
ethan olic stem b ark ex tract of commiphora africana
on dry sites and savannah forest of Africa (Irvine, 196 1).
blood gluco se leve ls on no rmoglyce mic w istar rats. T his
It is traditionally used for the treatment of a number of
wo uld help in contributing toward ethno botanical uses of
ailment including the treatment of typhoid and wound
healing (Lew is and Elvin-Lew is, 197 7). Com miphoraafricana
is a small tree, sometimes reaching 10 m but
MATERIALS AND METHODS
usua lly not m ore tha n 5 m high. It can be recognizedunm istakab ly from a distance by its outline-a spherical
Plan t M ateria l:
The stem bark of commiphora africana
top and a short trunk with low branches. Crown is
was collected within Main campus, Ah mad u Bello
rounded, with the branches ascending and then curving
University, Zaria. The plant was identified and
downw ards. Many of the branchlets end in spines. The
authenticated by M. Musa of the herbarium section in
bark is grey-green, som etime s shiny , peeling in
the Depa rtment of Biolo gical Scien ce, A hma du B ello
A.D.T.Goji, Department of Human physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Int. J. Anim. Veter. Adv., 1(1): 22-24, 2009
Effect of aqueo us ethanolic stem bark ex tract of commiphora africana
on blood glucose levels of no rmoglycem ic Wistar rats.
a = P< 0.05; a = significant, ns=not significant
Un iversity Zaria, where a herbarium specimen was
days after A lloxan injection , the blood glucos e leve ls was
prepared and deposited there with a voucher number
measured using the gluco se-ox idase princip le and only
those rats with fasting blood glucose g reater than 200mg/dL will be included in the study. (Stanley et al.,
The stem bark of commiphora
were collected and dried under shade and ground
The normoglyc emic rats were randomly assig ned into
into powder. The powder (500 g) was macerated in 30%
five groups (1-5) of six rats (n = 6) each as follows,
of distilled water and 7 0% ethanol at room temperature
for 24 hours. It was then filtered using a filtered paper(W hatm ann size no .1) and the filtrate ev aporated to
N ormal, treated W istar rats (were given
dryness in water bath at 60ºC. A brownish residue
No rmal sa line, 5 m l/kg bo dyw eight p .o
weighing 30.5 g was obtained. This was kept in air tight
Normal treated with 100 mg/kg extract p.o.
bottle in a refrigerator until used.
Normal, treated with 200 mg/kg extract p.o
No rmal, trea ted w ith 400 mg/k g extra ct p.o
Ch em icals used:
All chemicals and drugs u sed w ere
No rmal, trea ted w ith metfo rmin (250 mg/kg
obtained commercially and of analytical grade.
p.o) (Marta et al
., 2000: Solskov et al.,
A preliminary phytochemical screening of the stem
Determination of blood glucose levels:
All blood sam ple
bark extract of comm iphora africana
seed was also done
were collected from the tail artery of the rats at interval of
using standard methods of analysis (Trease and Evans,
0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Determination of the blood glucose
levels was done by the glucose-oxidase principle (Beachand Turner,1958) using the ONE TOUCH B asic
Acu te toxicity study:
LD determination was conducted
(Lifescan, MilpitasCA ) instrument and results were
using the method of Lorke (1983). In the initial phase,
expresse d as mg /dL (Rh eney an d Kirk, 20 00).
Albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups of threerats each. They were treated with the comm iphora
Statistical ana lysis:
Blood glucose levels were expressed
stem bark extract at doses of 100, 100 and 1000
in mg/d L as m ean ± SEM . The d ata w ere statistically
mg/kg per orally. Animals were observed for 24hours for
analyzed using ANOV A with multiple comparisons
any signs of toxicity. In the sec ond phas e of the toxicity
versus control group by Dunnett’s method. The values of
study the animal were grouped into three groups of one
p<0 .05 w ere tak en as significa nt.
rat each .Th ey w ere treated with the commiphora africana
Tab le 1. Effect of aq ueous eth anolic stem bark extract of
stem bark extract at doses of 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg
on blood glucose levels of
per orally. Anim als were observed for 24 h and there was
Tab le 1 showed the results of the effect of three doses
Signs of the toxicity were first noticed after 5-8 h of
(100, 200 and 400 m g/kg) of aqu eous etha nolic stem ba rk
extract administration. There were decreased locomotor
extract of commiphora afriana
, metformin and control
activity and sensitivity to touch. Also there was decreased
groups in normoglycemic Wistar rats. The dose of
feed intake, tachypnoea and prostration after 12 h of
metfo rmin and 100mg/kg of the extract did not show any
extract administration.The LD was calcu lated as 3807.8
significant change in blood glucose levels when comp ared
to the normal treated control group. However, the dosesof 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract showed a significant
An ima ls used and experimental design:
(p<0.05) decrease in the blood glucose levels after day 5
(36 ) Wister rats weighing between (120-150g) of about
20-25 weeks of age of both sexes was used and wasobtain from the Animal House of the Departmen t of
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, A.B.U. Zaria. Theywere kept in plastic cages under laboratory condition of
P hy to ch em ical screening:
Resu lt of the preliminary
temperature and humidity and placed on standard feed
phytochemical screening o f comm iphora africana
and allow free access to wa ter with 12 h light/dark cycle.
bark extract revealed the presence of flavinoid s, tannin,
The animals w ere fasted for 12-18 h w ith free ac cess to
anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides alkaloids, triterpenoids,
water prior to the administration of the extract. Three
Int. J. Anim. Veter. Adv., 1(1): 22-24, 2009
Acu te toxicity study:
Signs of the toxicity were first
of Physio logy, F aculty of M edicin e Ahma du B ello
noticed after 5-8 hours of extract adm inistration. There
were decreased locomotor activity a nd se nsitivity totouch. Also there was decreased feed intake, tachypnoea
and prostration after 12 hours of extract administration.
The LD was calculated is 3,807.8 mg/kg by the log-
Akah, P.A. and C.L. Okafor, 1992. Blood sugar lowering
probit using the method of Miller and Tainter
effect of Veronia amygdalina
(Del) in anexperimental rabbit mod el. Phytother. Res., 6:171-173.
Atta-ur-Rahman, and K. Zaman, 1989. M edicin al plan ts
with hypoglyc emic activity. J E thnop harm acol.,
The major classes of synthetic oral hypoglyc emic
agen ts currently available for the management and/or
Beach, E.F. and J.J. Turner, 1958. An enzymatic method
control o f a du lt-o nse t, N ID D M , type-2 diabetes mellitus
for gluco se de termin ation in body fluids . Clin.
include the sulphonyureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones,
and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and so on.Com miphora
Da lziel, J.M. and J. Hutchinson, 1956. The useful plants
have been shown to have hypoglycemic potential
of west tropica l Africa. 2nd Edn., Crown Agent for
in normoglycemic W istar rats by possibly stimulating the
Oversea Govt. and Admin. London, pp: 112-132.
$-cells and or du e to its insulin-like activity. C. africana
Hanus, L.O., I. Rezanka, V.M. Dembitsky and A.
at dose s of 10 0 200 and 400 mg/k g is shown in Table 1.
M oussaieff, 2005. My rrh-commiphora chemistry.
In relation to the normal rats that received 100 mg/kg
body weigh t of the extract of C.africana
, there was no
Irvine, F.R., 1961. Woody Plants of Ghana. Oxford
significant chan ge in the blood glucose levels when
compared to the co ntrol. In regard to the dose of 200 and
Jayaweera, D.M .A.198 2. M edicinal plants (Indigenous
400 mg/k g, it significa ntly (p< 0.05) lowered the blood
and Exotic) used in Ceylon, Part 11. National Science
glucose level when compared to control after day 5 and 7
Lewis, W .H. and M .P.E. Elvin-Lewis, 1977. Medicinal
Botany: Plants Affecting Mans Health, John Wiley
A number of investigators have shown that coumarin,
flavonoid, terpenoid and a host of other secondary plant
Lorke, D., 1983. A new approach to practical acute
metabolites including arginine and glutamic acids posses’
toxicity testing. Arch. Toxicol., 54: 275-287.
hyp oglyc emic effects in variou s exp erime ntal an imals
Marles, R.J. an d N .R. Fa rnsw orth, 19 95. A ntidiab etic
model (Akah and O kafor, 1992; Marles and Farnsworth,
plants and their active constituents. Phytomedicin, 2:
How ever, if the hypothesis of Marles and F arnsw orth
M arta, S., P. M aryse and G . Nath alie, 2000. E ffect of
(1995) which stipulates that plant w hich c ontain terpen oid
metfo rmin on the vascular and glucose meta bolic
and/or coum arin po sses h ypo glyce mic a ctivities in
actions of insulin in hypertensive rats. Am. J.
diabetic and normal mammal, then it would seen
Physiol. Gastr. Liver Physiol., 278: 682-692.
reaso nable to assume that, in part, at least, the
Rheney, C.C. and K.K. Kirk, 2000. Performance of three
hyp oglyc emic activity of the stem b ark of C. africana
blood glucose me ters. Ann. Ph armaco ther. 34(3):
may probably d ue to terpenoid present, which appe ars to
be involve in th e stimulation of the ß-cells and the
Serasinghe, S., P. Se rasing he an d H . Yam azak i et al.,
subseq uent secretion o f preformed insulin. One o r more
1990. Ora l hypo glyce mic e ffect of S alacia re ticulate
of the o ther ch emic al con stituents of the plant espec ially
in the streptozocin induced diabetic rat. Phytother.
Res., 4(5): 205-295.
flavon oid is also likely to have played a cruc ial role in the
Sofowora, A., 1992.
Medicinal Plants and Traditional
hyp oglyc emic action of the p lant ex tract.
Medicine in African.
Spectrum Books Limited,
In conclusion, the present study showed that aqueous
ethan olic stem b ark ex tract of C. africana
Solskov, L., B. L ofgren, S.B . Kristian sen, N . Jesse n, R.
hyp oglyc emic properties in no rmoglyce mic W istar rats
Pold, T. N elson , H.E. Boker, O. Schmitz and S.
which suggest the presence of biologically active
Lund, 2008. M etformin induces cardioprotection
com pon ents which may be worth further investigation and
against ischaem ia/Reperfus ion injury in the rat heart
elucidation. The effective hypoglycemic dose was found
24 hours after ad ministration. B asic Clin. Pharm.
to be 400mg/kg w eight. F urther s tudies are cu rrently
under way to isolate and characterized the active
Stanley, M.P. and M.P. Venugopal, 2001. Anti-oxidant
com pon ents o f the cru de ex tract of this plant.
action of Tinospora, Cordifolia ro ot extra ct inalloxan-induced Diab etic rats. P hytoth er. Res.,15:
Trease, G.E. and M.S. Evans, 1989. Textbook of
The authors of this work wish to acknowledge the
Pharmacognosy. 14th Edn., B alliere T indall.,
technical assistance of Malam Y’au M . of the Department
JULIE EVANS (TVN) Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Rehab Engineering Unit, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK. [email protected] Introduction: Patients may succumb to infections from a variety of ÂopportunisticÊ bacteria as a result Table 1 -Sequence of intervention and associated wound response of concurrent co-morbidities. The Centers for Disease Cont
Ranking Estadual do 26º Campeonato Estadual 2011/2012 3 Tambores Exibição Competidor Obs.: Conforme regulamento da ABQM Capítulo 8, Artigo 44º B)-PROVAS E TRABALHOS, parágrafo 1º - Em caso de empate ao final do Campeonato Estadual/Regional, prevalecerá o critério de maior número de 1º lugares, 2º lugares e etc., se assim mesmo persistir o empate, serão declarados co-cam