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Research Documents with New Comments 9
Introductory Note
This series is an effort to present the updated research documents with information collected through recent Ethnobotanical surveys (December 2010 onwards). Aphrodisiacs of Chhattisgarh: Traditional Medicinal Knowledge about common herbs
used as Sex Tonic in Chhattisgarh, India.
Research Note - Pankaj Oudhia
2001,2002,2003 Pankaj Oudhia - All Rights Reserved
The traditional healers and natives of Chhattisgarh have rich traditional medicinal knowledge about common herbs used as aphrodisiac. During my ethnobotanical surveys in different parts of the state, I have collected the information about 1000 herbs used as aphrodisiac. A lot have been written on few herbs like Kevatch (Mucuna pruriens), Safed Musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum), Patal Kumhda (Pueraria turberosa), Asgandha (Withania somnifera), Dasmool (Asparagas racemosus) etc. In reference literatures, it is mentioned that only these herbs possess aphrodisiac properties and without these herbs any herbal combination is incomplete and ineffective. This is the reason most of the Indian pharmaceutical companies prepare herbal combinations using these limited herbs. The common people are also aware of these limited herbs and just seeing its name in label (of packet), they are ready to pay the high cost. In India, due to malpractice of adulteration, this is hard to believe that any herbal combination contains real and genuine herbs. As herb expert, I got opportunities to visit many leading pharmaceutical companies but what I have observed is difficult to write. From collection of herbs to packaging, many irregularities exist. Most of the manufactures are not having well equipped laboratories to maintain the quality. These manufacturers are dependent on commission agents for supply of herbs. Common Indian Names of Kali Musli (Curculigo orchioides)
Bhoomotala, Dirghakandika, Talamulika, Musali The purchasing managers are not aware of correct identification of herbs. They have no idea to judge the adulteration. It is common practice in the country that in white root powder of Safed musli, the adulteration of chalk powder is done. You will be surprised to know that you will find this chalk powder in many products, based on Safed musli, available for sale in open markets. These irregularities are responsible for poor effects of herb based products including aphrodisiacs. The traditional healers of Chhattisgarh use these herbs less frequently because according to them there are many cheap and promising alternatives to these herbs and another reason is that the popularity of these limited herbs have made these herbs as the herbs of rich natives. In Chhattisgarh, the natives and traditional healers are using many common herbs, both internally and eternally, as aphrodisiac successfully. During surveys, I got information on many herbal combinations applied on body in form of paste in order to attract the females. There are many herbs recommended for the special bath in order to attract the females during routine life. The herb based lipsticks were very popular in early days. Also, there are specific Dataun (Herbal Tooth Brushes) recommended specially for the youths, in order to get sex power. The natives use these Datauns at specific period not round the year as the pharmaceutical companies recommend in its products. Along with herbs, many common insects and mites are also used as aphrodisiac in Chhattisgarh. Rani keeda (Red velvet mite; Trombidium) is one of them. The healthy queen of Termites is also considered as aphrodisiac in Chhattisgarh. As I always write in my articles that young generations are taking less interest in traditional practices, the valuable knowledge is not transferring to next generation. Hence, there is a strong need to document this valuable knowledge before further loss. These days whole world is eager to know the herbs for hair, skin and sex. Fortunately, the traditional healers and natives are specialised in using herbs useful for hair, skin and sex. In this article, I am describing some herbs used as aphrodisiac in Chhattisgarh. These herbs are poor man’s sex tonic and easily available. The methods of preparation are also simple and most of the combinations can easily be prepared at home. Some special combinations, having more potential, are prepared by the healers without disclosing the secret formula and methodology. Common Indian Names of Satavar (Asparagus sp.)
I am also describing these secret formulas because no one in the state have time to understand these formulas and methodologies. In Durg region of Chhattisgarh plains, the use of oil prepared from Jonk (leech) is very popular. Like preparation of other herbal oils, its preparation is very easy. The natives collect the leach from dabris and boil it in Til oil (Sesamum). When water evaporates, oil is collected and kept for future use. This oil is applied externally on male genitals before intercourse. Many natives using this oil complained that the regular use of this oil causes irritation and small blisters. When I discussed this problem to the traditional healers, they replied that they are aware of these troubles. As solution, they recommend the addition of some dried herbs in this oil. Gorakhmundi (Sphaeranthus indicus, whole herb) is one of these herbs. The healers also told me that the natives do not follow the standard method of oil preparation. The standard method is to boil a big leech in Adha Paw (250 ml) of Til oil in order to make the oil more stronger and effective (?), the natives boil two to three leeches in this small amount of oil. The result is irritation and small blisters. When I discussed the use of Jonk oil as aphrodisiac, with the traditional healers of Bastar region, they suggest another method of preparation. In this method, the leach is dried and this dried leech in combination with other herbs is boiled in Til oil. Many healers recommend the use of Sarson Tel (Mustard oil) in place of Til oil. New Comments added on February 6, 2011
Through recent surveys I have collected interesting information on use of Jonk oil. I would like to share with you. I collected Jonk oil from the Traditional Healers of Kawardha region. The Healers of this region prepare it by using herbs available in rainy season. They add 13 herbs with Jonk as primary ingredients, 5 herbs as secondary ingredients, 8 herbs as tertiary ingredients. This oil is prepared once in a year in bulk and used round the year. I am continuously visiting to Sirpur Mela from three years. I found this special oil with the herb vendors. They collect it from the Healers at very cheap prices and sell it to the users in very high rates. In general, they never inform about the secret ingredients. Many herb vendors moving one village to another village stay at night in village and as trial give this oil in small quantity. Next morning they get good number of buyers. Last week during to visit to Loharsing village I interacted with Sadhus visiting to the State from Gorakhpur, UP. In general they avoid keeping medicines with them for sell. This time surprisingly I found this special oil with them. “This is Trombidium oil or may be Jonk oil?” I guessed. They confirmed that it is Jonk oil purchased in bulk from the herb vendors of Sirpur. They added that there is regular demand of this oil in North India. It surprises me that why this oil is not available as commercial product in market. It can give direct benefit to the Traditional Healers. State Medicinal Plant Board of Chhattisgarh is working hard to promote herb based business in the state but I feel that they are not interested in doing new adventures. This is the reason you will be find the routine herbs in their brochures and plans. During recent visit to Markatola region I found this special oil with slight modification. The Healers informed that in this special oil central role is played by only Jonk not herbs. They add herbs as secondary and tertiary ingredients. It is important to note that without herbs this oil is considered incomplete. Alone Jonk is not capable of doing much. The Healers informed that this oil is very effective but not in much use as so many other alternatives are available. I shared my observations about Kawardha oil. They showed surprise. I suggested them to make this oil popular. I attend village marriages commonly. I decided to give this oil as wedding gift specially in Markatola area. Initial promotion resulted in encouraging results. Many rural youths took interest in its marketing. Last week a foreign visitor met to me with this oil. He wanted it to gift me. “It is precious gift from the dense forest of Chhattisgarh.” He said humbly. I thanked him and informed that we are trying to promote this oil. In local newspapers specific places in front and last pages have been captured by advertisements of Aphrodisiac oils available as commercial products. They make big claims but in ground they fail to give even one tenth of the claim. These products are very costly. I purchase such products from markets and give it to the Traditional Healers with request to compare it with Traditional products and if these commercial products are superior in any sense then make modifications in basic oils in order to make it more effective. The Healers thank me for it and share results of their experiments. After formation of new state Chhattisgarh pharma education institutions are increasing like wild mushroom. Young researchers getting education in these organisations are taking keen interest in my documentation work and they are trying to validate this knowledge scientifically. If you search Google Scholar or Scirus you will find lots of new publications on Traditional medicinal knowledge of Chhattisgarh. During interactions I always encourage the young researchers to conduct studies to evaluate Aphrodisiac products available in market and with the Healers. But they show more interest in common health troubles like Diabetes, Hypertension etc. Few years back there was an International Meet in Raipur on herbs. The organizers invited the herb researchers around the world. Many of them were assured that Pankaj Oudhia will be there but as expected they ignored me. Now days it is common practice to fool the participants of herbal conferences in different parts of India including in USA. You can see, even today, my name in the list of invitees in Discoverlife conference in Elmira College, New York. They never invited me and after all objections continued to display my name in their website as participant. So, in International Meet the fooled participants raised voice that Pankaj Oudhia is not here. The organizers said that he is sick. The participants contacted me and invited me in their hotel for interaction. During interaction they complained that every time these organizers present fixed 1200 Traditional Healers among the participants but in fact they are not real Healers. They know nothing about even Traditional Allelopathic Knowledge. I refused to comment on these official Traditional Healers but it is bitter fact that these Healers are “used” for such events continuously. From one angle it is good for the real Healers as they are free to practice Traditional Healing in dense forest where natives live far from modern health facilities. If the names of true Healers will be there then they have to attend such events and visit capital city leaving the long queue of patients in their houses. So, during interaction a participant from South Africa said that he is working on Traditional Aphrodisiac and wish to organize one meet between the expert Healers of Africa and India specially Chhattisgarh so that they can share knowledge and learn much from each other experiences. I welcomed his proposal and efforts are continuing in this direction. He informed that in Africa Aphrodisiac oils help in preventing STDs. The Healers of Chhattisgarh also make such claims. This interaction reminded me of Jonk oil. Yesterday I was enlisting the number of Aphrodisiac oils I have collected from year 1989. It crossed figure of 10,000. The efficacy of most of these oils has yet not tested under frame of modern science. In my detailed report on Traditional Medicinal Knowledge about Extra-ordinary sexual performances, I have written much on these oils but now seeing the quantum of knowledge I have in database, it seems that I have to write special report of Aphrodisiac oils of Chhattisgarh. The natives of Bagbahera region of Chhattisgarh use white flowered Dhatura herb as aphrodisiac. The method of preparation is very tedious and requires lot of patience. The whole herb is collected and juice is extracted by crushing the herb with the help of stones. About half litres (Two glassful) of juice is collected to prepare the herbal oil. After collection the natives dip a piece of cloth in juice and the juice with a piece of cloth is kept as such for 30 days. After 30 days, they lukewarm the Til oil in separate vessel. The piece of cloth having dried juice of Dathura herb is then burnt and drops of juice are allowed to mix in lukewarm Til oil. This medicated til oil is used as aphrodisiac. Many natives boil the piece of cloth in Til oil in order to get more strong effect. According to the traditional halers of the region, the first method is appropriate. This medicated Til oil is applied on male genitals daily. This oil causes no irritation and blisters. This is surprising to note that white flowered Dhatura is preferred as compared to black flowered Dhatura for preparation of these herbal oils. In general, black flowered Dhatura is considered superior medicinally as compared to white flower Dhatura. The natural occurrence of black flowered Dhatura is reported in Bagbahera region. Dhatura is a common wasteland plant in Chhattisgarh. Although it is considered as weed by weed scientists, but for natives and traditional healers, it is a valuable and frequently used herb in different herbal combinations. I am describing its botany and reported medicinal uses, I have noted from reference literatures. Botanically, it is a shrub having height upto 70cm; some what zig - zag, divaricately branched; Leaves ovate, acute, entire or with large teeth or lobes, usually pubescent, very unequal at the base; Flowers purple outside, white inside, double solitary, long, tubular, funnel-shaped, 18 cm long; limb with five or six deltoid lobes, and a short tail in the middle of each intervening sinus; Fruits capsule, nodding, sub globose, green, covered with straight sharp pickles; Seeds many, packed, yellowish brown. According to Ayurveda, seeds are acrid, bitter, heating, tonic, febrifuge, alexiteric, anthelmintic, emetic whereas whole plant is narcotic and toxic (?). In many parts of Chhattisgarh, the natives use indigenous species of Marigold, Chandaini Gona (Tagetes erecta) as aphrodisiac. They use the matured seeds with sugar during flowering season. Stored seeds are not used for this purpose. The traditional healers of Mahasamund region use common herb Duddhi (Euphorbia hirta) as aphrodisiac. Duddhi is wasteland weed in Chhattisgarh, hence it is considered as “Poor Man’s tonic." For use, the whole herb is collected and dried in shade. After drying powder is prepared and this powder is mixed with cow’s fresh milk and globules are prepared. The natives take these globules daily four hours before intercourse. Only small quantity is taken as medicine. Overdose may cause diarrhoea. The traditional healer of Durg region prepares a special herbal combination using high value herbs like Kali musli, Shatavar, Dhikuar, Kevatch seeds (Mucuna), Pen seeds (Malkangni), Untkatara roots (Echinops echinatus) etc. for his rich patients. These herbs are mixed in equal proportion and given with milk. I have seen a long queue of patients in front of his home. He is well known in the region for his formulations. Unlike other traditional healers, he charges very high fees to the patients. When I discussed him, he informed that he charges no fees from poor patients. His fees is negligible for the rich patients and according to him higher the fees, (the rich patients consider), better will be the herbal combination. New Comments added on February 7, 2011
Last year when I visited to meet the Healer of Durg region I was informed that he was no more. His son was now taking care of patients but queue was very short. “You will not find same effect in herbal combination given by Healer’s son.”One of the patients informed. I interacted with the son and thanked him for continuing the Traditional Healing. “I am adopting the exact method for preparation of herbal combination but after death of my father this formulation is not working. If this trend continues then I will stop this work and shift to new business.” There was feeling of frustration in his voice. I collected the samples from him and next visit presented it to the Healers of Southern Chhattisgarh for comments. “All ingredients added in this combination are no doubt very effective but his son was saying right that it has lost the miraculous effects.” The Healers confirmed. I returned back to the son and interacted up to long time. He informed that his father was collecting the ingredients from forest whereas he is dependent on local herb shops where it is hard to get the genuine herbs. I examined the ingredients and found it genuine. Adulteration was not there. His mother took interest in the on-going discussion. She disclosed that the Healer was using some herbal solutions to treat the plants before collection. It means the Healer was aware of Traditional Allelopathic Knowledge. The Healers was not happy with the son and as result he shared only one aspect of formulation and kept others as secret. This was the reason formulation was not much effective. The Healer’s wife said that one of his assistants is practicing this knowledge in his village. I decided to meet the assistant. Like the Healer of Durg his assistant is also very famous for this formulation in his village in North Chhattisgarh. He recognized me without any delay. I presented him herbal gifts I brought from Plains and shared the difficulties the son of Durg Healer was facing. He was kind hearted. Without any delay he disclosed the ingredients added in herbal solutions. I noted that barks of forest trees were major part of ingredients. I returned back and informed the son about treatment method. He started using it and now in coming months I am planning to meet him. I noted that the Durg Healer informed me about the major ingredients of formulation only. His son informed that in fact 35 other herbs are also added in this formulation although in small quantities. During surveys in different parts of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh I found lots of variations in formulation used by Durg Healer. In commercial market I found many products having similar ingredients but failed to find any comparative study in which the efficacy of these products is compared. I have mentioned the basic formulation and its variations in detail in my report on Extra-ordinary sexual performances. Singhara is common aquatic plant in Chhattisgarh. It is also under cultivation and natives take big ponds on lease for cultivation of this commercial crop. The natives of Chhattisgarh prepare special sweet dish (Halwa) from Singhara fruits. They are aware of its aphrodisiac properties. This sweet dish is served to newly married couples and they recommend its regular use upto one year of marriage. During fast (Upwas), the natives use this sweet dish as tonic. They prepare many dishes from this fruit. Raw fruits are also eaten. It is common belief in Chhattisgarh, that the use of raw fruits, root out the problem of tonsillitis and fulfill the Iodine deficiency of human body. Boiled fruits are also in use. During growing season, the local markets are flood with Singhara and both poor and rich natives eat these fruits. The scientific name of Singhara is Trapa bispinosa (Family Onagraceae). May villages in Chhattisgarh are named on Singhara. These village names clearly indicate that since generation Singhara is in use in Chhattisgarh. Singhara as medicinal herb holds a reputed position in different systems of medicine in India. According to Ayurveda, the fruits are cooling, aphrodisiac, astringent to bowels, antipyretic, appetiser and useful in treatment of leprosy, burning sensation, fatigue, inflammation, blood disorders, urinary discharges, biliousness, strangury, fractures, erysipelas, pain, thirst, sore-throat, bad breath, toothache, fever, lumbago etc. The Chana dal (Chickpea as pulse) is very popular and integral part of daily diet in Chhattisgarh. The Chana dal is also used as aphrodisiac. The uncooked dal is dipped in water at night and next morning it is taken with honey. According to the traditional healers of Chhattisgarh, the use of uncooked dal is good sex tonic but it is wrong to say that it is only a sex tonic. They recommend its use to the natives of all age groups. According to them, the regular use of this dal adopting this method develops enough resistance in body to fight with diseases. This is also beneficial for the patients suffering from diabetes. The natives using Chana dal informed that it is effective but requires more time and patience, as compared to other alternatives. New Comments added on February 7, 2011
From 3 years with the help of Traditional Healers I am growing Gram i.e. Chana by using Blumea and Vicoa based herbal solutions. The crop is treated with different solutions at different stages in order to get medicinally enriched seeds. These seeds are then used as Aphrodisiac. This is unique method of Gram cultivation not mentioned in ancient as well as modern literature related to different systems of medicine. Gram crop is raised organically and to manage notorious gram caterpillar cow dung and urine based combinations are used. My experiments are limited to one to two acres only. But to irrigate or treat this crop lot of Blumea, Vicoa and other weeds are required. I have observed that the use of socalled weeds help in keeping control over its population. Seeing the experiments from three years now many farmers are taking interest in it. Hoping that in near future they will start cultivation of this special Gram in order to fulfill the requirement of the Traditional Healers. In my report on Traditional Medicinal Knowledge and Diabetes I have written a lot on different aspects of use of Chana Dal including its use as Aphrodisiac. Through recent surveys I got additional information on this aspect. The Healers of North Chhattisgarh suggest use of Chana Dal with other native pulses in order to get more promising results. They claim that use of these pulses have so many advantages. The most important is that it increases the body resistance and because of this effect the users remain free from season diseases round the year. In this part of Chhattisgarh Traditional Pulses are still under cultivation. The senior Healers of Ambikapur region suggested improved daily schedule for the use of Chana Dal as Aphrodisiac. The users are suggested to adopt daily schedule sincerely in order to get maximum effect. In general it is considered useful for both sexes but this knowledge is commonly practiced for male partners specially in case of youth preparing to marry in coming months. The Healers informed that they are aware of growing Gram through the specific method specially through use of Grass leachate and extracts but they are not practicing this Traditional Knowledge these days. They blame the modern Agricultural researchers for polluting the region by promoting use of agrochemicals. “You are aware of harms of pesticides on medicinal properties of Gram but your neighbor is not. He will use pesticides as much as possible which will affect your crop as our fields are not fenced and through wind and irrigation water harmful chemicals reach to our fields. Hence, there is no sense of growing special Gram alone. If entire village will decide to grow then only it is possible.” They said the pain. I am with them. The main reason is that the modern researchers are not aware that Gram is still grown and used as medicine in Chhattisgarh. Gram is treated by such researchers as commercial pulse crop. The research emphasis is on quantity not quality. There are tens of research stations active in the state but they never thought of learning the special methods of Gram cultivation from farmers. During interactions with the Traditional Healers of Kanker region I noted that they are aware of use of many forest trees for Gram cultivation. They have rich Traditional Agricultural Knowledge. This Traditional Knowledge is not only used for pest management but also to promote growth and enrich Gram plant parts with medicinal properties. When I asked for their comments on use of Chana Dal as Aphrodisiac they suggested use of 13 herbs in different days of month along with use of Chana Dal. These herbs help Chana Dal in giving best performances and vice-versa. And both herbs and Chana Dal are boon for human body. When I shared information about Medicinal Gram with young farmers of Kawardha region they showed surprise. Kawardha region is famous for its Gram production. I met “Gram King” having tens of acres under Gram crop. He liked the concept of Medicinal Gram but added that he will shift only when there is assured market. I presented him specially raised Gram seeds from my fields. He tried it and found it very effective in his old problem of Diabetes and Hypertension. He was not much interested in its Aphrodisiac properties. Hence I got no feedback on this aspect. After getting good results now he is planning to grow Medicinal Gram in small area for his family. This is positive step. During my visit to Jagdalpur region last month, I got information on use of roots of Munga (Moringa oliefera) and Parsa (Butea monosperma) as aphrodisiac. Both herbs are used separately. Aik paw (250 gms.) of dried Parsa roots are boiled in three litres of water. When half quantity of water is evaporated, the patients or natives are advised to eat the roots with leachate in order to become sexually more potential. According to the natives, one time use in a whole year is sufficient for any person. The roots of wild species of Munga are preferred to prepare a decoction. High yielding cultivated species are avoided by the natives. The procedure is same as in case of Parsa. But it is slow acting decoction. The natives suggest its regular use (once in a day) upto six months and never repeat it whole life. The use of Parsa and Munga roots as aphrodisiac is not well described in reference literatures. I personally feel that there is a strong need to evaluate its efficacy scientifically. New Comments added on February 7, 2011
The visits to same region and long interactions with the Healers resulted in new information. The Healers have over 35 criteria to select potential Parsa trees for collection of roots. They also practice Traditional Allelopathic Knowledge to enrich Parsa roots with desired medicinal properties. Hence, this simple looking use of Parsa roots is not that simple. It requires much hard work to get enriched Parsa roots. I realized it when many readers informed that they are trying this formulation but not getting the desired effects as claimed. In ancient as well as modern literature the use of Parsa roots in this manner is mentioned, I have noted during recent literature search but the specific complicated method adopted by Healers to enrich Parsa roots is not mentioned. It seems that ancient writers kept this big secret with them and modern researchers followed them blindly. After reading this document many readers replied that White or Yellow flowered Parsa roots are more useful in such formulations. Earlier it was difficult to get these rare types in forest. Now I was informed that government nursery at Jabalpur are not only raising these rare types but also selling it in reasonable prices. I am not sure whether they are raising it by using Traditional Allelopathic Knowledge or not. If not then it is difficult to get the desired effects. The Healers of Chhattisgarh use roots of commonly available Parsa after enriching it. During recent surveys in Rajim region many Healers informed that Bodal (Climbing Parsa) roots can be added with common Parsa roots in specific cases in order to make this formulation useful. As second herb they suggested addition of Prem Phool. The formulation with these three herbs is in use in this region. The surveys in different parts of Chhattisgarh revealed that Parsa based single herb formulation can be improved by adding number of enriched herbs. I have collected information on over 700 formulations. In all formulations central role is played by enriched Parsa roots. Most of these formulations are still part of Traditional Healing but far from the modern researchers. There are different formulations for Diabetic patients, heart patients etc. I am amazed to document this important Traditional knowledge. The natives of Bastar region, serve specially cooked (or prepared) rice to newly married couples. Desi varieties (indigenous rice varieties) are preferred in this preparation. During cooking, they add the fresh juice of Punarnava herb. According to the natives, this medicated rice is good sex tonic. The traditional healers of Chhattisgarh plains are also aware of this medicinal preparation. They add more herbs in this preparation in order to make it more potential but they avoid disclosing these extra herbs. I am not describing the botany and reported uses of Punarnava in this article, as I have already described it in my previous articles. New Comments added on February 7, 2011
More visits to same region resulted in in-depth information on use of Punarnava with rice as Aphrodisiac. The Traditional Healers informed about use of ten Medicinal Rice types with Punarnava. Although these days it is very difficult to get Traditional Rice specially Medicinal Rice with farmers but the Healers using this combination have kept it safely and every year raising it in their crop fields. “We examine the patients and interact with them up to long time. Based on the group of diseases they have we suggest use of Punarnava with specific Medicinal Rice.” They explained. The modern as well as ancient literatures give no information on these Medicinal Rice and its unique uses. I have mentioned in previous documents that the Healers of Chhattisgarh have rich Traditional Allelopathic Knowledge about Punarnava. They use different herbs in form of solutions to grow Punarnava for different purposes. For its use as Aphrodisiac they use over 150 types of Herbal Solutions. I have not only collected information on this aspect but also prepared short duration films. Surprisingly the Healers of Bastar using Punarnava with Medicinal Rice were not aware of enrichment methods. I shared this knowledge and gifted enriched Punarnava. They used it and reverted with positive replies. Later they confirmed that they are preparing enriched herb but also complained that many important ingredients of the herbal solutions are not available in their surroundings as forest is moving far from their villages due to Wood Mafia. I checked my database again and suggested some promising alternatives to them. “Why only Punarnava? 17 herbs grow with Punarnava in rainy season and 8 during winter season. Use these herbs judiciously with Punarnava in order to harvest real Aphrodisiac properties of this herb.” The Healers of Mainpur region informed. They select the additional herbs based on their experience and this addition was done in unique way. These Healers are also aware of Traditional Allelopathic Knowledge. But surprisingly instead of different extracts for different herbs they use same extract for Punarnava as well as other herbs used in same formulation. In this extract they use underground portion of 18 herbs. Freshly prepared extract is applied in root zone of all herbs one week before harvest. They have difference in opinion about the frequency of treatment. Most of them use the extract only once whereas there are senior Healers that are in favor of treating herbs daily up to one week. Beside these internal uses, the natives and traditional healers recommend and use, many herbs alone and in combination with other herbs, externally. These combinations are in oil or paste form and applied on male genitals for different purposes viz. to increase the retention time, to get delayed ejaculation, to get more pleasure etc. This is very difficult to categorized different formulations and combinations according to specific purposes as each combination have multipurpose uses. I am describing many such promising combinations, I have noted during my ethnobotanical surveys. The use of herbal oil prepared from common weed Bhatkatiya and black scorpion is very common in Chhattisgarh. The Bhatkatiya herb (Solanum xanthocarpum; family: Solanaceae) before flowering is collected. One big and black scorpion is also collected. Both herb and scorpion are boiled in base oil and when all watery contents evaporate, oil is kept for future use. In rainy days, the natives add Rani keeda, (Red velvet mite, Trombidium sp.) along with Bhatkatiya and scorpion. In Bastar region of Chhattisgarh, the Red ants, common in mango trees, are used in place of Rani Keeda. They avoid using both Rani Keeda and Red ant in same combination. They are not aware of reason but I am sure the researchers can answer this question after scientific studies. The oil is applied externally on male genital one hour prior to inter course. Its popularity in Chhattisgarh clearly indicates its efficacy. As all basic ingredients are commonly available and method of preparation is very simple, the natives prepare and use it very frequently. Although it is common belief in Chhattisgarh that regular use of Baigan (Solanum melongena) as vegetable darkens the face colour (Please refer to my previous article on Traditional Medicinal Knowledge about common herbs used in face care in Chhattisgarh, India), but as aphrodisiac they use the fruits in different ways, very frequently. The natives collect the fresh fruit and wrap it in Kanhar soil collected from rice fields. This fruits is kept inside the hot ash upto two hours. After this the juice is extracted. In the mean time, they collect the fresh Pipal (Ficus religiosa) leaf and dip it in Baigan juice upto three days. After three days, this leaf is crushed into powder and this powder is mixed with pure honey. This combination is applied externally on male genitals. In another method, the fully matured yellow Baigan fruits are collected. In each fruits, 60 Pipal leaves are pierced and fruit is hanged with the help of Bamboo. After complete drying, it is boiled in base oil. At the time of boiling, the natives add freshly collected earthworms or Rani Keeda, as per availability. The oil is used in same way. It is general recommendation that use the oil upto fifteen days in order to get better results. New Comments added on February 7, 2011
While staying with Traditional Healers in villages I never miss to demonstrate this unique method by using Bhata and Pipal as both are easily available. The first method is very effective. Like other formulations the Healers of different regions suggested much modifications in it. I have documented this knowledge with all details. The traditional healers of Bilaspur region add the seeds of Mooli (Raphanus sativus) in order to make the oil more potential). The above mentioned traditional medicinal knowledge is valuable and still in use in different parts of Chhattisgarh. With the help of these formulations, the state government can develop many small cottage industries and can play a vital role in marketing and promotion of these formulations. Thank you very much for reading the article. Citation
Oudhia, P. (2011). Research Documents with New Comments 9: Aphrodisiacs of Chhattisgarh: Traditional Medicinal Knowledge about common herbs used as Sex Tonic in Chhattisgarh, India. http://pankajoudhia.com Pankaj Oudhia

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1. JMOL shows initially generated structure. You can have better structure by clicking “Minimize Molecules”. But it requires your patient to see the re2. “Save file” saves initially generated structure inmol2 format. To save minimized structure, “Show->Extract MOL data” option in JMOL. 1 3D structures without any spoiled fragments 2 which has all correct chiral centers3 Chirali

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