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How can health workers tell if I have active TB?
The most common opportunistic infection in people with HIV is
Health workers can test for TB in different ways. The most reliable
TB. If you have TB it can be cured. Whether or not you have had
test for TB used is a sputum test. A chest X-ray may also be
TB before, it can also be prevented. Many people with HIV die
Can TB infection be treated or prevented?
What is TB?
Yes. It is possible to treat latent TB infection, thus reducing the
TB is caused by a bacterium (germ). The TB germ spreads through
risk of developing active TB. Seek counselling from an experienced
the air when a person who has the disease coughs, sneezes or
TB doctor to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such
breathes. TB can occur anywhere in the body, but only TB in the
treatment. Isoniazid, also called INH, is an antibiotic pill used to
lungs can infect other people. Anyone can become infected with TB,
treat latent TB. It must be taken for at least six months. Although
but all people with HIV are at greater risk of becoming sick with TB
there are no clear global guidelines on when to begin INH therapy,
. People with HIV/AIDS with a CD4 count lower than 200
the risk of TB rises steadily with decreasing CD4 count, especially
also stand a greater chance of dying from TB.
CD4 counts below 200. INH is cheap and provided free of chargeat many hospitals and clinics. Your health worker should checkevery month for serious INH side effects. If you are diagnosed
What is the difference between TB infection
with active TB, then you will need instead three to four drugs for
and TB disease?
treatment (see “Can active TB be treated?”). If you develop side
(latent TB) means that the bacteria are inside your body
effects such as a skin rash, you should seek advice from your doctor.
but they are not active. People who are infected with TB usually
You may need to change one or more of your drugs.
have no symptoms and most of them do not become ill. They also
If you live, work or study in areas where TB is common,
do not pass the disease on to other people.
prevention of TB infection may be critical. Always use a tissue or
is also called active
TB. Active TB means the infection
handkerchief for coughing and sneezing. Encourage other people to
has become active in your body and will make you sick. People with
active TB have symptoms and can pass it on to other people.
If you know or suspect you have been around someone with TB,
Therefore, active TB must be treated, cured and, where possible,
you should go to the clinic to be checked, especially if you have any
prevented. If TB is left untreated it can be fatal.
symptoms. TB is more likely to be transmitted to people who haveclose contact, such as living in the same household. If you are found tohave TB, you can start treatment early. If you do not have TB, you may
What are the signs and symptoms of active TB?
benefit from INH preventive therapy, especially if you live with HIV.
Symptoms of active TB disease in the lungs include prolongedcough, sputum, fever, night sweats, weight loss and tiredness. If youhave active TB in the lungs, you will usually have a cough that will
Can active TB be treated?
not go away. Sometimes your sputum will have blood when you
Yes. Persons diagnosed with active TB can be treated and cured
cough. If you have HIV and TB, you can get other opportunistic
with medication taken for six to eight months. TB treatment starts
infections such as pneumonia. If you have a persistent cough for
with three or four drugs. People with severe TB might spend time
more than three weeks you should go to a clinic to be checked.
in the hospital. After two months, the number of drugs are reduced.
OPEN SOCIETY INSTITUTENetwork Public Health Programs
If you have drug resistance, you may need medication for a longer
Rifamycins must be taken without food
on an empty stomach.
period. TB medication must be taken until the doctor says that your
This drug can stop contraceptives such as the pill and injection
TB is cured.
Stopping or skipping TB medication just because you
from working properly. Avoid or reduce alcohol.
If you are on any
feel better might lead to recurrence of TB (also known as relapse).
anti-retroviral treatment inform your doctor. Some rifamycins
When you relapse and get TB again, it might become more difficult
may interfere with anti-retrovirals—special caution is necessary.
to cure. By not finishing your medication you could also develop
Also, special caution is needed for persons who must take some
drug-resistant TB. Treatment of drug-resistant TB is more difficult
rifamycins while they are receiving methadone treatment.
and much more expensive. Treat TB and finish all your medication
until the doctor says you are cured.
Streptomycin injections are painful and abscesses may form at injec-
tion sites. Some people experience allergic reactions. Streptomycin
What is DOTS?
may cause headache, vomiting, dizziness, and/or ringing of the ears.
“DOTS” is a strategy used by health authorities to ensure that a TB program is successful and that people with TB finish their
treatment. One key component of this is directly observed treatment
Ethambutol may cause nausea, vomiting, rash and vision problems.
(DOT), which means that someone helps you to take every dose ofTB medication. You can ask a family member, colleague, friend, or
partner to help you remember when to take your pills and to make
PZA can cause pains and aches in the joints, nausea, vomiting,
sure that you finish your treatment. You can also go to your local
rashes and liver problems. When taking PZA always drink a lot
clinic or any place where DOTS nurses or volunteers work (shops,
churches, factories) to take your TB medicines.
Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB)
MDR-TB is resistant to at least two of the main TB drugs, INH and
What drugs are used to treat TB?
rifampicin. MDR-TB can infect anyone. In people with HIV/AIDS,
There are five first-line drugs produced and used to treat TB. The
MDR-TB can cause death rapidly. MDR-TB is difficult and very
same drugs are used in TB patients co-infected with HIV, and in
expensive to treat as it requires different TB medications that are
HIV negative people. Because TB is mainly a disease of poor people
more toxic, less effective, and more extensive (18 to 24 months). It is
and countries, drug companies have not developed or researched
a small but growing epidemic. MDR-TB can be prevented by
any new drugs for more than 40 years. HIV treatment activists must
completing all TB medications when you have active TB and by rapid
campaign for more TB drug and vaccine research, as well
treatment of anyone with MDR-TB. In some countries, generic and
as better access to existing TB drugs in clinics and hospitals.
state production through compulsory licensing of MDR-TB drug will
Isoniazid (INH), Rifamycins such as Rifampicin and Rifabutin,
be critical to making treatment affordable and accessible.
Streptomycin, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide (PZA) are the keydrugs used to treat TB. TB drugs like all medicines may have sideeffects. Alcohol often causes problems with medications. Ask your
General Facts About TB
health worker about alcohol use with any medications. Sometimes
Ī Although TB is curable, the disease takes a life every
you have to take TB pills with food and sometimes without food.
It is important to remember that drugs can cause side effects in a
Ī Worldwide, one third of people living with HIV are
minority of patients. All TB drugs except Streptomycin can be taken
Ī Up to 50 percent of people with HIV or AIDS
INH side effects can include rash, liver problems and tingling in the
TB causes up to 40 percent of AIDS deaths
hands and feet. Avoid or reduce alcohol to decrease liver problems.
Ī People with HIV are up to 50 times more likely to
Ask the clinic or hospital for vitamin B6 to reduce tingling in hands
develop TB in a given year than HIV-negative people
and feet. INH must be taken with food to prevent stomach problems.
Ī In most of East and Southern Africa, less than one
patient in three receives a full course of TB drugs
Rifamycins can cause your fluids to change color. Your urine, tears
Acknowledgements This fact sheet was produced by Treatment Action Campaign for
and faeces can turn orange with rifamycins. This is a normal side
South Africa based on an initial document developed by Gay Men’s Health Crisis
effect and does not mean you have to stop taking this medication.
(GMHC). The document was modified for global distribution by the Open Society
It can also cause flu-like symptoms, fever and liver problems.
Institute and members of the TB/HIV working group of the Stop TB Partnership.
Questioning the Global Warming Science: An Annotated bibliography of recent peer-reviewed papers (Short Version) Prepared By Madhav L Khandekar Environmental Consultant FRIENDS OF SCIENCE Calgary, Alberta January 2007 Scope & Purpose of the Document This Document presents an annotated bibliography of selected peer-reviewed papers whichquestion the current state of
(Rev. Esp. Anestesiol. Reanim. 2005; 52: 109-114) CASO CLÍNICO Tratamiento con radiofrecuencia pulsada en dos casos de neuralgiaglosofaríngea idiopática y secundaria. Resultados preliminaresD. Abejón*, S. García del Valle**, C. Nieto*, C. Delgado***, J. I. Gómez-Arnau****Área de Anestesia, Reanimación y Cuidados Críticos. Unidad de Dolor. Fundación Hospital Alcorcón. Alcorcón. Madr