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Interferon Production, T-Lymphocytes and Echinacea Common Na m e s : Black Sampson, Purple Coneflowe r, Ru d b e c k i a , Ac t i ve Compounds: echinacoside, polysaccharides (echinacin), antibiotic polyacetylenes, betaine, caffeic acid glyc o s i d e s , SPECI FI C ACTI ONS A SSOCI ATED WI TH ECHI NACEA inulin, isobutyl amides, ess ential oil (humu lene,c a ryophylene), isobutyl-alkylamines, resin, flavonoids (inl e a ves and stems), sesquiterpene esters (echinadiole, epox y - echinadiole, echinax-anthole, and dihydor-xynardole).
Pharmacology: Echinacea contains a variety of chemical compounds which have significant pharmacological functions. It has beenthe subject of hundreds of clinical and scientific studies SECONDA RY A PPLI CA T I ONS OF ECHI NA CEA
which have primarily used an extract of the plant portion ofthe botanical. The rich content of polysaccharides and ENDNOT ES
phytosterols in echinacea are what make it a strong immunesystem stimulant. The sesquiterpene esters also haveimmunostimulatory effects. Glycoside echinacoside is found A DDI T I ONA L REFERENCES
in the roots of the plant. Echinacin has also been found topossess anti-fungal and antibiotic properties. This componentof echinacea also has cortisone-like actions which can helpp romote the healing of wounds and helps to control theinflammatory reactions of allergies.
Vitamin and Mineral Content: vitamins A, E, C, iron, iodine, copper, C h a ra c t e r : a l t e r a t i ve, antibiotic, antiseptic, antiviral, anti- i n f l a m m a t o ry, immuno-stimulant, carminative, depurgative , fermentative, demulcent, lymphatic tonic, and vulnerary Body Systems Ta r g e t e d : immune system, lymph system, blood and Recommended Usage: Echinacea works best if it is taken right at the A tea or decoction made from echinacea is good for onset of an infection in substantial doses and then tapere d o f f. It can be used in higher quantities as a pre ve n t a t i veduring winter months when colds and flu are pre valent. If This form of echinacea is also effective for infections using it to maintain the immune system, periodic use is such as influenza, urinary tract, glandular fever etc.
believed to be more effective than continual usage. Typically, Echinacea tinctures have be used in concentrated one should use echinacea for seven to eight weeks on form for food poisoning and snakebite.
f o l l owed by one week off. Guaranteed potency echinacea iscurrently available in capsule form only.
Can be used as a decoction or diluted tincture forinfected wounds.
Safety: High doses can occasionally cause nausea and dizziness.
Can be used for direct application on burns or other Echinacea has not exhibited any observed toxicity even in high dosages. Anyone who is suffering from any type ofkidney disorder should restrict taking echinacea to one week Can be dusted on infected skin conditions such as maximum. Ve ry heavy use of echinacea may temporarily Echinacea capsules are used for acute infections suchas colds, flu, urinary tract or kidney infections.
Echinacea tincture can be combined with water tomake a gargle for sore throats.
Because 20th century medical practices have routinely ove r - prescribed antibiotics, the notion of a natural antibiotic with virtually Fresh Pressed Ju i c e : Some commercial preparations offer this form, no side-effects is intriguing to say the least. Echinacea is one of however, because it requires a freshly harvested plant, s e veral herbs which possesses antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. In a time when new life-threatening microbes are evolvingand pose the threat of modern-day plagues, herbs such as echinacea a re particularly valuable. Mo re and more health practitioners are focusing on fortifying the immune system to fight off potential studied Native American medicine in the early part of this century, infections rather than just treating infection after it has developed.
Echinacea was used as a remedy by Native Americans more than any Echinacea is enjoying a renaissance today. During the late 1980’s, other plant in the central plains area.
echinacea re-emerged as a remarkable medicinal plant. In addition to In time, early white settlers learned of its healing powers and used its infection fighting pro p e rties, echinacea is known for its healing the plant as a home remedy for colds, influenza, tumors, syphillis, properties as well. As was the case with so many herbs, echinacea lost hemorrhoids and wounds. Dr. John King, in his medical journal of its prestige as a medicinal treatment with the advent of antibiotics. It 1887 mentioned that echinacea had value as a blood purifier and has experienced a resurgence over the last two decades.
a l t e r a t i ve. It was used in various blood tonics and gained the Echinacea has several other much more romantic names including reputation of being good for almost every conceivable malady. It has Purple Coneflowe r, Black Sampson and Red Su n f l owe r. It has also been called the king of blood purifiers due to its ability to improve become the common name for a number of echinacea species like E.
lymphatic filtration and drainage. In time, echinacea became popular angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida. The genus derives its name with 19th century Eclectics, who were followers of a botanic system f rom the Greek word e c h i n o s which refers to sea urchin. This founded by Dr. Wooster Beech in the 1830’s. They used it as an particular association evolved from the prickly spiny scales of the seed anesthetic, deodorant, and stimulant.
head section of the flowe r. Hi s t o r i c a l l y, echinacea has sometimes By 1898, echinacea had become one of the top natural treatments become confused with Parthenium integrifolium. in America. During these years, echinacea was used to treat feve r s , The word echinacea is actually a part of the scientific latin term, malignant carbuncles, ulcerations, pyorrhea, snake bites and echinacea angustifolia, which literally translated means a narrow - dermatitis. In the early twentieth century, echinacea had gained a leafed sucker. The plant grows wild as a perennial exclusively in the formidable reputation for treating a long list of infectious disease m i d western plains states, but can be cultivated almost anywhere .
ranging from the commonplace to the exotic. The Lloyd Bro t h e r s Echinacea leaves are pale to dark green, coarse and pointy. Its florets Pharmaceutical House developed more sophisticated versions of the are purple and its roots, black and long.
herb in order to meet escalating demands for echinacea. Echinacea has a strong Na t i ve American link in the Central Ironically, it was medical doctors who considered echinacea more Plains. Native Americans are credited with discovering the usefulness valuable than eclectic practitioners. Se veral articles on echinacea of this botanical without knowing its specific chemical properties. It a p p e a red from time to time in various publications. Its attributes was routinely used by Na t i ve Americans to treat toothaches, we re re v i ewed and, at times, its curative abilities ranged from the snakebite, fevers and old stubborn wounds. sublime to the ridiculous. In 1909, the Council on Pharmacy and Native Americans thought of echinacea as a versatile herb that not C h e m i s t ry of the American Medical Association decided against only helped to fight infection, but increased the appetite and recognizing echinacea as an official drug, claiming that it lacked s t rengthened the sexual organs as well. The juice of the plant was scientific credibility. It was added to the National Formulary of the used to bathe burns and was sprinkled on hot coals during traditional United States despite this type of negative reaction and remained on “sweats” used for purification purposes. It is also believed that some Na t i ve Americans used echinacea juice to protect their hands, feet O ver the past 50 years, echinacea has earned a formidable and mouths from the heat of hot coals and ceremonial fires.1 reputation achieving worldwide fame for its antiviral, antifungal and According to Melvin Gilmore, An American anthropologist who antibacterial actions. Consumer interest in echinacea has gre a t l y i n c reased, particularly in relation to its role in treating candida, c h ronic fatigue syndrome, AIDS and malignancies. Practitioners ofnatural medicine in Eu rope and America have long valued its Echinacea is considered one of the best blood purifiers found in attributes. In recent, years, German research has confirmed its ability nature. It has been scientifically researched for its chemical ability to to augment the human immune system. Ex t e n s i ve re s e a rch on neutralize harmful venom from poisonous snakes, scorpions, insects echinacea has occurred over the last twenty years. Test results have and other toxic substances. Laboratory tests have found that certain s h own that the herb has an antibiotic, cortisone-like activity.
complex chemicals found in echinacea have the ability to rearrange Echinacea has the ability to boost cell membrane healing, pro t e c t and re c o g n i ze enzyme patterns in the body.5 It also improve s lymphatic filtration and drainage and assists in clearing the blood Because of its immuno-enhancing activity, it has recently been f rom damaging toxins. It has traditionally been re f e r red to as the used in AIDS therapy. Research has proven that echinacea may have p rofound value in stimulating immune function and may be Any condition which is believed to be caused by an accumulation particularly beneficial for colds and sore throats.3 of toxins in the body can benefit from echinacea. In 1885, Rudolf Weiss re c o rded, “It (Echinacea) has proved a Echinacea increases the body’s ability to resist and fight infection, useful drug in improving the body’s own resistance in infectious clears the blood of impurities and has been used for fevers, venereal conditions of all kind.”6 C l e a r l y, echinacea has potent immune diseases, hemorrhoids and as an aphrodisiac. Un q u e s t i o n a b l y, its system actions and impacts the thymus gland, the activation of T- most important function as a botanical is as an immune system cells, and the promotion of interf e ron production and secre t i o n .
booster and blood purifier. For this reason, it has recently been Because of these attributes, it is an important herb in combating infections, especially viral ones like AIDS and Chronic Fa t i g u e Echinacea is one of the most useful herbs available to practitioners because it functions to simultaneously stimulate the immune system, The major component of echinacea called inulin is responsible for while it expedites the removal of toxins from the body. a c t i vating pathways in the body, which help neutralize viruses and Echinacea is recommended for common infections and can be bacteria, and boost the migration of white blood cells to infection tried in lieu of or in combination with conventional antibiotics.4 It is sites. The natural polysaccharides, fatty acids and glycosides in this better to take the herb for two weeks at a time alternating with two botanical all strengthen and nourish the immune system. Echinacea is considered an immuno-tonic, which supplies the immune system It is an effective therapeutic agent for healing wounds, tre a t i n g abscesses, carbuncles, eczema, burns, psoriasis, herpes, canker sore s , Echinacea has the capability to stimulate the immune re s p o n s e typhoid fever, viral and bacterial infections and tumors.
which results in an increased ability to resist infections. It is the mostwidely used herb for the enhancement of the immune system and is valuable for treating virtually all infectious diseases. Studies have s h own that echinacea has impre s s i ve immune system boostingproperties, many of which are produced in the thymus gland.7 One way in which echinacea helps the body combat infection is by enhancing the immune function of white blood cells. In order for What is fascinating about echinacea is that while it can raise white white blood cells to effectively fight bacterial or viral inva s i o n , blood cell activity it can also lower it when appropriate. This plant nutrients such as vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc are necessary.
has the ability to affect opposite reactions in the body, and it is the Adding echinacea potentiates any nutrient mix, which helps facilitate b o d y’s condition which determines they type of action initiated.
the production of white blood cells. White blood cells surround and There are no known synthetic drugs which have this dualism to both d e s t roy bacterial and viral invaders. Te c h n i c a l l y, they digest disease augment and suppress the immune response according to need.
organisms; a process called phagocytosis. Echinacea makes L a b o r a t o ry tests have shown that echinacea does, in fact, boost phagocytosis more efficient. The white blood cells which participate the production of antibodies and T-cells. In the case of any infection, in phagocytosis are called macrophages. In several laboratory studies, the sooner treatment is started, the better the results will be.
echinacea has repeatedly stimulated the bactericide activity ofm a c rophages. In other words, it potentiates their ability to destroy In t e rf e ron is produced in the body primarily by T-cells. The For anyone who has to undergo radiation treatments, echinacea chemical components of interf e ron are extremely important in can also be beneficial. One of the drawbacks of both radiation and activating white blood cells to destroy cancer cells and viruses. Several chemotherapy is that white blood cells are destroyed by the nutrients can help boost the production of interferon but none seem treatments. The particular therapeutic action of echinacea discussed to have the potency of echinacea. The effect of echinacea is a b ove shows that it can stimulate an increase in white blood cells considered remarkable in its ability to stimulate the production and f o l l owing radiation treatments. These findings also suggest that action of interf e ro n .8 It is this effect which results in significant echinacea works best to combat infection if taken early, before the infection spreads. In light of these studies, taking echinacea is highly T- Lymphocytes are responsible for what is called cell-mediated recommended for anyone undergoing radiation or chemotherapy for immunity. In other words, immune functions that are not controlled by antibodies. This type of immunity is vital in protecting the bodyagainst certain diseases caused by fungi (such as yeast infections),parasites, moldlike bacteria and viruses. Contracting these types ofinfections may indicate that the immune system has already been compromised and is susceptible to invasion. In addition to the disorders listed above, cell-mediated immunity also helps to protect us from autoimmune diseases such as arthritis, Echinacea acts as a natural antibiotic and helps to clear tox i n s allergies and the formation of malignancies. from the glands and lymphatic systems. Lymphatic circulation is vital Interferon is produced by T-Cells and acts to boost and potentiate to the immune system. The lymph system is considered the second the immune system. Laboratory tests have confirmed that extracts of c i rc u l a t o ry system of the body. It cleans the body of excess waste the echinacea root contain interf e ron-like pro p e rt i e s .9 C l e a r l y, from cellular functions which is discarded through the kidneys.
interferon boosts immune function and is currently being tested for Lymphatic function can be improved by increasing the circulation its potential value in treating cancer. It is produced naturally in the of lymph fluid. Echinacea can accomplish this and in addition, helps body and enables body systems to resist viral invasion. Some studies to expedite waste products through the lymph system.12 Apparently, h a ve suggested that echinacea may be effective in fighting tumor Echinacea improves the circulation of both blood and lymph, which can facilitate the removal of waste through the skin, kidneys and the Echinacea has been found to effectively pre vent the spread of infection.11 It inhibits the production the action of hyaluronidase, anenzyme which is secreted by invading organisms to makes u r rounding tissue more susceptible to infection pro l i f e r a t i o n .
Hyaluronic acid is the stuff that glues cells together to create tissue. It is vital to protecting our cell walls against the threat of invasion bydisease microbes like strep and staph bacteria. Hyaluronidase breaks Echinacea extracts are excellent when used for various kinds of d own the viscosity of this acid making it possible for organisms to acute infections. Colds and throat infections seem part i c u l a r l y vulnerable to the immunostimulant action of echinacea. In f e c t i o n s In addition, the polysaccharide contained in the herb can protect such as influenza and strep are also affected by the herb. cells against diseases such as herpes, canker sores, colds, flu and a Again, taking echinacea on a regular basis does not guarantee that the body will not develop an infection, howe ve r, the duration andseriousness of the infection should be decreased.
Antibacterial Action of Ec h i n a c e a : It is interesting to note that In any case, research strongly suggests than anyone who consumes echinacea renders a mild effect on bacteria. It must be remembered, echinacea regularly can expect protection against some viral h owe ve r, that the ability of echinacea to stimulate the immune system may explain its long historical use for bacterial infections. Theechinacoside and caffeic acid content of echinacea have been found Respiratory System Infections and Echinacea: Echinacea has become to inhibit the growth of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aure u s , well known for its ability to treat respiratory infections including: Corynebacterium diphtheria and Proteus vulgaris.13 influenza, tonsillitis, whooping cough, and colds. In addition,bronchial and ear infections respond well to echinacea therapy. The Vi ral Infections and Ec h i n a c e a : Viral infections are notoriously majority of research that supports this action of echinacea was done difficult to treat. Even with all the strides that medical technology has in Europe with injectable forms of echinacea which are not legal made, finding a cure for viral disease has remained elusive. Echinacea stands out as one of the more effective antiviral herbals. The plant Using whole, powd e red, capsulized echinacea on a daily basis has undergone several studies to determine what exactly makes it an during the winter months may also provide significant pro t e c t i o n e f f e c t i ve virus fighter. Se veral studies have confirmed that when against these respiratory diseases. Concentrated liquid extract is also c e rtain laborat ory samples we re pre - t reated with echinacea compounds, they became protected against exposure to seve r a lv i ruses including: influenza, herpes and vesicular stomatitis (cankersores).
Scientists believe that the polysaccharides contained in echinacea called inulin are primarily responsible for the immuno-stimulanteffect of this herb. The following listed actions make echinaceaespecially effective in fighting viral infections and cancero u sconditions.
•. Promotes macrophage activity•. Stimulates T-cell production•. Stimulates interferon production•. Increases phagocytosis14 It is echinacea’s ability to stimulate T-cell act ivity, that subsequently produces interf e ron which may be responsible for itsanti-viral effect. While this theory has been disputed, ingestingcertain forms of echinacea has resulted in some degree of protectionagainst viral infection. Fresh echinacea juice appears to be the mosteffective form of the herb.
p ro t e c t i ve barrier around cells so that disease microbes can enter is thought to occur in the initial stages of tumor formation. Be c a u s eechinacea prevents the formation of hyaluronidase, it may play a role Some experts believe that over the last 40 years, science has lost its in preventing the development of certain types of cancer.16 battle with cancer. Progress has been slow and cancer mortality ratescontinue to rise despite the enormous amount of money spent onresearch. While most of us are aware of potential carcinogens which s u r round us at eve ry turn, most of us do not take a pre ve n t a t i ve German re s e a rch has demonstrated echinacea’s ability to tre a t c e rtain allergic re a c t i o n s .1 7 It may be the cortisone-like activity of In other words, even if we eat nutritiously and try to pro t e c t echinacea which accounts for its anti-inflammatory action. In the ourselves from toxin exposure, cancers still develop. The role of the case of allergic reactions, the immuno-suppressive action of echinacea immune system in cancer pre vention is significant to say the least.
Why some people develop cancerous tumors and others do not may An allergy occurs when the immune system becomes ove r l y stimulated by the presence of an allergen. Each time that the allergen We’re all aware of the new emphasis on antioxidants today.
enters the body an allergic response is initiated. Echinacea can Likewise, stimulating and strengthening the immune system may also temper this cascade of symptoms by stabilizing mast cells, which are provide significant protection against certain types of malignancy. It’s responsible for the histamine release which creates havoc with our time to concentrate on why some of us don’t get cancer instead of bodies. This action results in a substantial reduction of allergy focusing all our attention on why some of us do.
In addition to boosting the immune system, echinacea has been The fact that echinacea actually suppresses the immune system is s h own to increase pro p e rdin levels in the body which may be nothing less than remarkable. This herb might be referred to as “the responsible for its anti-cancer activity. By increasing the production botanical with a brain.” In other words, it can either stimulate or and secretion of interferon, echinacea may help enable the body to inhibit immune response as determined by the status of the body.
Synthetic drugs do not have this ability. USDA re s e a rchers have found that echinacea contains a tumor inhibiting compound. This compound is an oncolytic lipid-solubleh yd rocarbon. This particular substance which is found in the essential oil of echinacea, has shown its ability to inhibit lymphocyticleukemia and other types of cancers.
Because echinacea has antiseptic pro p e rties, it can be used both One theory concerning this activity is that it probably does not internally and externally to heal conditions such as bed sores, boils, involve creating a cytotoxic effect directly on cancer cells, but rather burns, ulcers and wounds of any kind. The inulin Echinacin B stimulates the action of anti-cancer cells such as natrual killer cells content of echinacea extracted from the rhizome gives echinacea its wound healing pro p e rties. It also accelerates the production of The fact that echinacea inhibits the enzyme, hyaluronidase may granulomatous tissue which is necessary for tissue healing in the also be a factor. The same type of mechanism that breaks down the Russian studies have shown that echinacea also helps to stimulate is its ability to inhibit a specific enzyme that weakens connective healing in wounds and prevents blood clotting.19 tissue cells when they are exposed to certain microorganisms. Thisenzyme is called hyaluro n i d a s e .2 3 W h e n e ver skin cells have beenc o m p romised by infectious organisms, echinacea can help pre ve n t the spread of infection and speed the healing of the skin byp re venting the bre a k d own of skin tissue at the cellular level. The anti-hyaluronidase action of echinacea, especially when applied as a Because echinacea contains the polysaccharides inulin and poultice, can significantly prevent infection and enhance healing in echinacin it may be helpful in fighting stubborn viral infections such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Anytime the immune system becomes In addition, topical applications of echinacea are valuable in c o m p romised due to exhaustion, allergies, or depression, viral and t reating snake and insect bites. German re s e a rch suggests that bacterial invasion can occur. The chemical compounds contained in echinacea extracts and salves can benefit a variety of inflammatory echinacea promote improved resistance to all septic or infectious skin conditions including: psoriasis, eczema, and herpes.24 Yeast infections are caused by an fungus called Candida albicans.
Echinacea is believed to be one of the best herbs in the treatment This particular organism has been the subject of intense intere s t , of enlarged prostate glands or other prostate disord e r s .2 1 Its anti- research and controversy over the last several years. Standard medical i n f l a m m a t o ry pro p e rties are believed to help decrease swelling and therapies for yeast infections usually involve the use of antibiotics and irritation. Tests on mice have shown that using echinacea to control antifungal drugs which can, in themselves, compromise the immune i n f l a m m a t o ry responses has resulted in a decrease in edema or system. In laboratory tests using control groups, subjects who re c e i ved echinacea we re compared to those who took standardantifungal treatments. In these cases, better results we re obtainedwith the echinacea.25 It is the polysaccharides contained in echinacea which seem to enhance the resistance of the immune system against the Candida When combined with chickweed, echinacea has been used to fungus. This finding again stresses that echinacea may have promote weight loss.22 Scientifically, there is a lack of data to explain important therapeutic applications for anyone who is in a weakened state and susceptible to opportunistic infections.26 Echinacea in both external and internal forms can be used to treat yeast infections. It has been suggested that anyone who has recurringyeast infections should consider adding echinacea extract to their Any type of skin damage, whether caused by injury or infection can be treated with echinacea. One of the major actions of this herb Echinacea can be used for a number of different disord e r s , h owe ve r, its primary strength is its ability to pre vent and tre a t Some laboratory tests have demonstrated that echinacea has infections. It can be considered a blood purifier which helps to c e rtain anti-inflammatory pro p e rties which can help pre vent or neutralize the effects of venoms and chemical toxins in the blood and d e c rease the inflammation and swelling typically found in art h r i t i s as a vital immune system booster. It has been used for eve ry t h i n g sufferers. Unlike the inflammatory response of the body to infections, from yeast infections to ulcers, to tuberculosis and gangrene.
the chronic inflammation of joint diseases such as arthritis is not Echinacea can be thought of as a natural antibiotic and is d e s i reable. In these cases, echinacea can help to inhibit chro n i c especially beneficial for colds, flu, and sore throats. Combining inflammation. Its effect is considered equal to approximately half of echinacea with Myrrh is thought to potentiate its action.
that resulting from steroid drugs like cortisone in arthritic patients.27 Echinacea can actually suppress immune function when that Ap p a re n t l y, echinacea contains a specific factor which pre ve n t s function is not desireable as seen in allergies and arthritis. In these inflammation and swelling when observed in certain laboratory tests.
conditions, it acts as a natural anti-inflammatory. The safety of This particular tonic action may be quite helpful for people who echinacea has been shown in a number of laboratory tests using oral suffer from chronic arthritis. Arthritis symptoms result from an or intravenous applications of the herb. It has been proven to be immune response which creates inflammation in the joints. As is the v i rtually non-toxic in doses amounting to many times the human case with allergies, when arthritis is present, echinacea inhibits the therapeutic dose.27 Echinacea is one of the most useable plants in the inflammatory action of the immune system.
herb kingdom and is applicable in the fields of both homeopathy and It is interesting to note that another component of echinacea actually boosts the inflammatory response when it is appropriate. For Whether you pronounce echinacea with a soft or hard “ch” sound, this reason, wounds respond well to echinacea.
it should be considered a powerful immune system booster.
Steroids are commonly prescribed for inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. Because steroid drugs have so many negative side-effects,echinacea may prove to be an invaluable treatment for impro p e rimmune system reactions that cause conditions like arthritis.
At this writing, the possible role of echinacea on HIV has not been established. While some pre l i m i n a ry studies look pro m i s i n g ,much more re s e a rch is needed to determine whether or note c h i n a c e a’s stimulation of immune function will benefit AIDSpatients.
Echinacea, Alfalfa, Ba y b e r ry, Capsicum. Comfre y, Gi n g e r,Ginseng, Lobelia and Myrrh Echinacea Poke Root, Golden Seal and Capsicum Echinacea works like an antibiotic by simulating the immune system and has none of the side effects of antibiotics.
This herb is especially effective in treating sore throat, earaches, colds, and viral and glandular infections.
The action of echinacea blocks the receptor site of viruses on the surface of cell membranes which prevents the cell from becoming Echinacea, Lapachok, Comfrey and Horsetail Echinacea helps the body rid itself of waste material and toxins. Itcan help reduce edema and water retention.
By activating and potentiating the immune system, echinacea canhelp treat infectious disease through its natural anti-viral, and Pr i mar y A ppl i cat i ons of Echi nacea Studies suggest that echinacea may help to prevent certain types Echinacea has the ability to suppress the immune system when d e s i reable. This makes it valuable in the t reat ment of inflammatory diseases and allergic reactions.
Echinacea is an effective blood cleanser.
It can help relieve pain and swelling.
As a wash, it can treat skin disorders such as eczema, burns, psoriasis, herpes, canker sores and abscesses.
Echinacea stimulates the adrenal cortex, which naturally stimulates the release of cortisol, an anti-inflammatory agent.
• Contagious Diseases• Diptheria• Ear Infections• Eczema • Glandular Disorders• Gums• Infections (viral and bacterial) C l a i re Kowalchik and William H. Hylton, Editors, Ro d a l e’s Illustrated Encyclopedia. (Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale Press, 1987), Louise Te n n e y, “Ec h i n a c e a”, To d a y’s Herbs. ( Provo, Ut a h : Woodland Publishing, Vol. XIII, Number 1, 1993), 1.
Family Guide to Na t u ral Medicine. ( Pleasantville, New Yo rk : Andrew Weil, MD, Natural Health, Natural Medicine. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990) 236.
Ga ry Gillum, Ed i t o r, “Ec h i n a c e a” To d a y’s Herbs. ( Provo, Ut a h : Woodland Books, Vol. I Issue 11, July, 1981), 1.
6Penelope Od y, The Complete Medicinal Herbal. ( New Yo rk : 7Michael Murray, ND and Joseph Pizzorno, ND, Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. (Rocklin, California: Prima Publishing, 1991), 58.
8V.H. Wagner and A. Proksch., “Im m u n o s t i m u l a t o ry Drugs of Fungi and Higher Pl a n t s”, Economic Medicinal Plant Re s e a rc h .
(1985), 1, 113-53.
9Louise Te n n e y, The En c yclopedia of Na t u ral Remedies. ( Pl e a s a n t Grove, Utah: Woodland Publishing, 1995), 50.
Daniel B. Mow re y, The Scientific Validation of Herbs. ( New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing, 1986), 119.
Michael T. Murray, N.D. The Healing Power of Herbs. (Rocklin, California: Prima Publishing, 1995), 100.
J. Mose, “Effect of Echinacin on Phagocytosis and Na t u r a l Killer Cells”, Med. Welt. (1983), 34, 1,463-7.
1 5M. Stimple, A. Proksch, H. Wa g n e r, et al., “Ma c ro p h a g e Ac t i vation and Induction of Ma c rophage Cy t o t oxicity by Pu r i f i e dPolysaccharide Fractions From the Plant Echinacea Pu r p u re a” ,Infection Immunity. (1984), 46, 845-9.
16Mowrey, 119.
17Ibid., 25018Ibid., 11919Ibid.
20Ody, 17621Velma J. Keith and Monteen Gordon, The How To Herb Book. (Pleasant Grove, Utah: Mayfield Publishing, 1983), 29.
2 2Louise Te n n e y, To d a y’s Herbal Health. ( Pleasant Grove, Ut a h : 2 3Daniel B. Mow re y, Ph.D., Ech inacea. ( New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing, 1995), 31.
24Ibid., 33.
25Ibid., 41.
26C. Steinmuller, J. Roesler, E. Grottrup, G. Franke, H. Wagner and Matthes Lohmann, “Polysacharides Isolated From Plant CellCu l t u res of Echinacea Pu r p u rea Enhance the Resistance ofIm m u n o s u p p roes Mice Against Systemic Infections with CandidaAlbicans and Listeria Monicytogens,” In t - J - Im m u n p h a rmacol. 1 9 9 3 ,July: 15(5): 605-14.
27Ibid., 43.
2 8U. Mengs, C. Clare and J. Po i l e y, “Toxicity of Ec h i n a c e a Pu r p u rea. Acute, Subacute and Ge n o t oxicity St u d i e s ,Arzneimittelforschung. 1991, Oct. 41(10): 1076-81.
Becker, V. H. Against snakebites and influenza: use and components of echinacea angustifolia and e. purpurea. Deutsche Ap o t h e k e rZeitung, 122 (45), 1982, 2020-2323.
Buesing, K.H. Inhibition of hyaluronidase by echinacin. Arzneimittel- Foster, S. Echinacea, Nature’s Immune Enhancer. Healing Arts Press, Hobbs, C. The Echinacea Handbook. Eclectic Medical Pu b l i c a t i o n s , Keller, H. Recovery of active agents from aqueous extracts of the species of echinacea. Chemie Gruenenthal G.M.B.H., GER. Kuhn, O. Echinacea and Phagocytosis. A rz n e i m i t t e l - Fo rxchung, 3, Mc Gregor R.L. The taxonomy of the genus Echinacea (Compositae). Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 48, 1968, 113-142.

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Qcm - richard 2010-1

Rayons X et gamma et rayonnements particulaires 2010-11 Question 9 Rayons X et gamma et rayonnements particulaires Cochez la (ou les) proposition(s) vraie(s) A- Les protons et les neutrons sont les particules fondamentales constituant le noyau atomique. B- Deux isotopes d’un élément se différencient par leur nombre de neutrons. C- Cobalt-60 (Z = 27) et le nickel-60

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