Final exam solutions

Questions from Lecture and the Oliver Sacks book:

1. Which is NOT true about measures of personality? A) their stability increases with age B) personality traits, according to twin studies, are about 50% heritable C) conscientiousness appears to diminish risk of Alzheimer’s disease D) children are more similar to an adoptive sibling than to any randomly selected unrelated 2. Research indicates that for a test taken in the afternoon A) introverts and extraverts perform better after consuming caffeine B) introverts and extraverts perform worse after consuming caffeine C) introverts perform better but extraverts perform worse after consuming caffeine D) extraverts perform better but introverts perform worse after consuming caffeine 3. In one study (from Woodward, 1998), 3-month olds and 6-month olds saw repeatedly a person reach for an object (ball) on the left and not reach for a teddy bear on the right. Then, they saw a display in which the teddy bear was on the left, and the ball on the right. The person either reached for the teddy bear on the left (same action, new object) or the ball on the right (same object, new action). Looking time was used as a measure to infer how the 3-month olds and 6-month olds interpreted the relation between the initial habituation phase and the subsequent changed test phases. The results indicated A) both 3-month olds and 6-month olds looked longer when the person grabbed a new object B) both 3-month olds and 6-month olds looked longer when the person made a new action than C) 6-month olds looked longer when the person made a new action, but 3-month olds looked longer when the person grabbed a new object D) 3-month olds looked longer when the person made a new action, but 6-month olds looked longer when the person grabbed a new object 4. Theory of mind research has reported which findings? A) maturation of theory of mind occurs earlier in interdependent than independent cultures, earlier in children with older siblings, and later in autism B) maturation of theory of mind occurs earlier in interdependent than independent cultures, earlier in children with younger siblings, and later in autism C) maturation of theory of mind occurs similarly in interdependent and independent cultures, earlier in children with older siblings, and later in autism D) maturation of theory of mind occurs similarly in interdependent and independent cultures, earlier in children with younger siblings, and later in autism 5. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that activation in the frontal lobes is more _________ in older relative to younger people and that this change in older adults is associated with ________ cognitive aging. A) symmetric; successful B) symmetric; unsuccessful C) asymmetric; unsuccessful D) asymmetric; successful 6. From age 16 to young adulthood (age 22), grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobes _______ and white matter volume ________ . A) decreases; increases B) is constant; decreases C) increases; is constant D) increases; decreases 7. Adaptive physiological changes that occur in response to acute stress include all of the below EXCEPT A) suppression of immune system B) suppression of growth C) suppression of digestion D) suppression of cardiovascular tone 8. Which brain region (1) is activated in response to physical pain, the social pain of exclusion, and the personal pain of romantic rejection, and (2) which brain region shows a relation between volume and risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? A) (1) hippocampus; (2) cingulate cortex B) (1) cingulate cortex; (2) hippocampus C) (1) amygdala; (2) cingulate cortex D) (1) cingulate cortex; (2) amygdala 9. The probability that if one identical (monozygotic) twin is diagnosed with schizophrenia, so will the other twin is A) 90% B) 50% C) 10% D) 1% 10. The subgenual cingulate has been implicated as playing an important role in depression. Which one of the results below is FALSE? A) subgenual cingulate metabolism is reduced in depression B) subgenual cingulate volume is reduced in depression C) there is a reduced number of neurons in subgenual cingulate in depression D) greater activation in the subgenual cingulate predicts better drug treatment outcome 11. A survey of 5,000 young adults, ages 19-25, revealed that A) about 80% had a psychiatric disorder in the past year, and less than 50% with a disorder B) about 10% had a psychiatric disorder in the past year, and less than 5% with a disorder C) about 50% had a psychiatric disorder in the past year, and less than 25% with a disorder D) about 50% had a psychiatric disorder in the past year, and about 1% with a disorder sought A) treatment with psychostimulants does not slow development of cerebral cortex B) children with ADHD fail to control response inhibition relative to children without ADHD C) prefrontal cortical regions in children with ADHD appear to mature structurally two years or more later than in typically developing children D) activation for reward anticipation is greater in ADHD in the nucleus accumbens than it is in 13. In Milgram’s studies of obedience (shocks and learning), which factor did NOT influence the likelihood that subjects would administer shocks to the highest possible level? A) if experiment was at university or office building B) if the subject was a man or a woman C) if the researcher gave no commands once the experiment started D) if there was an ordinary person (not a scientists) in charge 14. What factor has been shown in experiments to increase the willingness for a bystander to help somebody? A) the presence of passive experimental confederates B) recent consideration of the importance of helping others C) being alone D) the personality factor of extraversion 15. In Festinger’s original experiment examining cognitive dissonance, people took a boring test, and were then paid nothing (did not lie) or paid either $1 or $20 to lie and tell the next person that task had been interesting. When later asked to evaluate how truly interesting the task had been, who rated the task as most enjoyable? A) the people who lied and were paid $20 B) the people who lied and were paid $1 C) the people who did not lie D) the people who were paid either $1 or $20 equally 16. On average, people from a collectivist culture (e.g., Japan) differ from people from an individualistic culture (e.g., United States) in several ways. Which answer below is INCORRECT about ways in which people from collectivist cultures tend to differ from people from individualistic cultures? A) People from a collectivist culture are more prone to the fundamental attribution error B) People from a collectivist culture are less susceptible to the attractiveness bias C) People from a collectivist culture draw more accurately a line that is the same length relative to a line and a box (frame) previously seen D) People from a collectivist culture remember an object (like a fish) more accurately when it is later tested for with the original background 17. Experiments have shown people often make errors in predicting what will bring them happiness. All of the following have been shown to NOT make people happier in the long run, except which answer? A) having many choices B) a choice that can be changed over the next few days C) getting tenure D) expressing gratitude and helping others 18. People with Williams syndrome have been tested on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and exhibited what result? A) exaggerated gender and racial biases B) no gender or racial biases C) a gender bias, but not a racial bias D) a racial bias, but not a gender bias 19. In the Oliver Sacks chapter, the patient with Tourette’s syndrome was treated with Haldol and all EXCEPT which of the below occurred? A) he chose eventually to take the medication during the week and not during the weekend B) his job situation and home life improved C) there was an immediate positive response D) he became worse at ping-pong 20. In the Oliver Sacks chapter, all EXCEPT which of the below was true about the woman with “Cupid’s disease” A) she had syphilis from her days of prostitution B) she became flirtatious at the age of 88 C) penicillin killed the spirochetes evident in her spinal fluid D) penicillin ended her disinhibition
Questions from the Textbook Reading:

21. “A relatively consistent tendency to think, feel, or behave in a characteristic way across a range of situations” is called a: A) Personality dimension B) Superfactor C) Personality trait D) Temperament 22. In addition to personality inventories, another method to assess personality is the projective test. Which of the following is a defining feature of a projective test? A) Being asked to make sense of an ambiguous stimulus. B) An interview in which a a psychologist asks a series of questions about personality. C) A questionnaire in which participants indicate whether descriptions are true of themselves. D) Being asked how you would behave in novel situations. 23. Until about 3-4 months of age, babies produce a _____________ reflex when their cheek is stroked lightly: They turn their head toward the stimulus and start trying to suck. A) moro B) rooting C) tilt D) babinski 24. With regard to the major milestones of language acquisition, around what age do normally functioning children know about 10,000 words? A) 6 years B) 2 years C) 18 months D) 13 years 25. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages described different issues that need to be resolved during development. Which of the following is NOT one of Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of development? A) Basic trust vs. mistrust B) Initiative vs. guilt C) Individualism vs. the group D) Generativity vs. self-absorption 26. Which of these statements is true regarding memory and aging? A) Acetylcholine production is impaired B) The hippocampus is smaller in older adults C) Older adults have difficulty recalling specific episodic memories D) All the above are true 27. Kohlberg identified three general levels of moral development. The _____________ level focuses on the role of rules that maintain social order and allow people to get along. A) preconventional B) conventional C) semiconventional D) postconventional 28. What characteristic EEG features are found in the stage of sleep where hypnic jerk may occur and the body may be easily reawakened? A) Less regular, lower amplitude than waking state B) Sleep spindles and single high-amplitude waves C) Delta waves account for 20-50% of activity D) Delta waves account for more than 50% of activity 29. Which of the following is NOT thought to be a useful function of sleep? A) It provides an evolutionary advantage by allowing energy conservation. B) It helps the body restore itself from the wear and tear from the day’s events. C) It facilitates learning the material encountered during the day. D) It facilitates an unconscious commitment to romantic partners. 30. Which of the following is NOT a useful psychological treatment for insomnia? A) Restricting sleeping hours to the same nightly pattern. B) Controlling bedtime stimuli so that your bed is associated only with sleep or sex, not C) Ingesting certain substances, such as chocolate or alcohol, before bed. D) Regularly doing aerobic exercise about four times a week. 31. Which of the following descriptions is matched with the correct type of problem-focused coping strategy? A) Planning – waiting to act until the appropriate time B) Restraint coping – thinking about how to manage the stressor C) Active coping – trying to remove or work around the stressor or to ameliorate its effects D) Suppression of competing activities – seeking concrete advice, assistance, or information 32. Which of the following is NOT one of the seven criteria for substance dependence? A) Despite knowledge of recurrent or ongoing physical or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by the substance, continued use of substance. B) Important work, social, or recreational activities given up as a result of the substances C) Persistent desire to increase or abandon control of the substance use. D) Larger amounts of substance taken over a longer period of time than intended. 33. The DSM groups most mental disorders by their A) treatment. B) causes. C) theoretical basis. D) symptoms. 34. Which of the following best describes dysthymia? A) a form of depression that affects circadian rhythms and other biological functions, such as B) the feelings of a hopelessness and loss of energy that are a precursor to mood disorders. C) a mild, chronic form of depression. D) a severe, intermittent form of depression. 35. All of the following statements about eating disorders are true EXCEPT: A) People with eating disorders are preoccupied with food, body image, and weight. B) People with eating disorders tend to have irrational beliefs that all foods are bad. C) When looking at photographs of themselves, women with eating disorders spend more time D) Eating disorders are associated with abnormalities in the functioning of the neurotransmitter 36. As Mary and Bob are leaving for a trip, Mary repeatedly asks Bob if they locked the door on their way out. For their entire trip, Mary cannot stop thinking about the door and worries that someone may break into their house. Mary’s thoughts about locking the door are: A) compulsions. B) obsessions. C) both obsessions and compulsions. D) neither obsessions nor compulsions. 37. Which of the following is a negative symptom of schizophrenia? A) hallucinations B) disorganized speech C) alogia D) unpredictable agitation 38. Ken’s psychiatrist notes that Ken is experiencing a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, and identity. Ken mostly likely has a(n) __________ disorder. A) adjustment B) schizophrenic 39. Which of the following is the type of therapy designed to help patients reduce problematic behaviors to develop new, more adaptive behaviors and beliefs? A) Client-centered therapy B) Dream Analysis C) Cognitive-Behavior Therapy D) Irrational Belief Centered Therapy 40. The use of medication to treat psychological disorders is known as: A) Tardive dyskinesia B) Cognitive restructuring C) Psychopharmacology D) Psychomedical Therapies. 41. Benzodiazepines are primarily used to treat: A) Dissociative Identity Disorder B) Migraines C) Bipolar Disorder D) Anxiety Disorders 42. Which of the following characteristics of attitudes is not associated with making the attitude more likely to shape behavior? A) The attitude is relatively stable. B) The attitude is important. C) The attitude is negative. D) The attitude can be easily accessed from memory. 43. The “mere exposure effect” is when: A) People are less likely to be persuaded when they have become too familiar with someone B) People are more likely to be persuaded before they are familiar with someone presenting an C) People are more likely to be persuaded when they have become familiar with someone D) People are less likely to be persuaded when they are over-exposed to someone presenting an 44. Which of the following is NOT a way to decrease prejudice? A) Social learning with our peers. B) Increased contact between groups. C) Shifting the categories so that two groups are no longer distinct entities. D) Increasing mutual interdependence between groups. 45. Which of the following is not consistent with the fundamental attribution bias? A) When someone else does something wrong we believe that it is because of his or her B) When we do something wrong we believe it is due to our bad characteristics. C) When someone else does something good we may believe that it was due to luck or the D) When we do something good we believe it is due to our natural ability.
Short-Answer Questions

Please choose 5 of the following 13 questions, and provide your responses on the provided sheet.
Only answers written on the response sheet will be graded. If you answer more than 5 questions,
only the first 5 will be graded.

1. Match each of the “Big Five Superfactor” in the left column to the one personality inventory question in the right column that bears on the superfactor. Big Five Superfactor Answers:
1-B 2-D 3-A 4-C (p291)

2. What are Piaget’s Periods of Cognitive Development? Sensorimotor; Preoperational; Concrete operations; Formal operations; p.334

3. Children become attached to their primary caregivers but may end up being attached in different ways. What are the four types of attachment? 1) Secure; 2) Avoidant; 3) Resistant; 4) Disorganized/disoriented; p.339

4. Selye’s three-stage stress response is called the _____(1)_____ syndrome. The first stage is _____(2)_____, when the body mobilizes its resources to fight or flee. The second stage is _____(3)_____, when the body mobilizes its resources to achieve homeostasis in the presence of the stressor. In Stage 3, _____(4)_____, continued efforts to achieve homeostasis wear the body out and may be very damaging. Answers: (1) general adaptation syndrome; (2) alarm; (3) resistance; (4) exhaustion

5. List the four subtypes of schizophrenia specified by the DSM. Answers: (1) paranoid; (2) disorganized; (3) catatonic; (4) undifferentiated (Chapter 11, p. 424)

6. Emotional or dramatic behaviors are common symptoms of Cluster _____(1)_____ personality disorders. Jane, Max, and Penny each have a personality disorder in this Cluster. Jane’s need to always be the center of attention and excessive expression of emotion make it difficult for her to get along with her friends and co-workers . Jane has _____(2)_____ personality disorder. Max has been arrested multiple times, has difficulty controlling his impulses, and exhibits a long-standing pattern of reckless disregard for others. Max has _____(3)_____ personality disorder. Penny displays an exaggerated sense of self-importance, lack of empathy, and constantly asks others to admire her new diamond ring. Penny has _____(4)_____ personality disorder. Answers: (1) B; (2) histrionic; (3) antisocial; (4) narcissistic
(Chapter 11, p. 433-434)

7. Experiments have shown that there are psychological modifiers that can significantly reduce stress responses to difficult circumstances. Name 4 such modifiers outlet for frustration; sense of predictability; sense of control; perception of life improving; social

8. People who rate themselves the very most happy often report satisfaction from what sort of two activities (1 & 2)? People who report themselves as a step less happy (but still quite happy) often report satisfaction from what other two activities (3 & 4)? Super happy - Close relations volunteer work
Happy – education, politics, income

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Curriculum vitae

Curriculum Vitae Homa Hajimehdipoor Personal Information Mailing Address : Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Educations 1999-2004 : Ph.D. Student of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 1992-1999 :

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