Curr Atheroscler RepDOI 10.1007/s11883-011-0221-0 NONSTATIN DRUGS (W BORDEN, SECTION EDITOR) Advances in Medical Therapy for Weight Lossand the Weight-Centric Management of Type 2Diabetes Mellitus Leon I. Igel & Amanda G. Powell &Caroline M. Apovian & Louis J. Aronne # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 Abstract Overweight and obesity are now recognized as individuals with type 2 diabetes. Emphasis is also placed on a leading causes of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hyperten- proposed paradigm shift from the glucose-centric to the sion, hyperlipidemia, and ultimately, cardiovascular disease.
weight-centric management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Despite the serious consequences, roughly two thirds ofAmericans are presently classified as overweight, and about Keywords Weight loss . Weight management . Obesity .
one third are classified as obese. Weight loss via lifestyle Type 2 diabetes . Pharmacotherapy . Glycemic control .
modification and pharmacotherapy can promote improvement Weight-centric management of type 2 diabetes in many of these obesity-related conditions. This reviewaddresses recent advances in pharmacotherapy for themanagement of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities, with a focus on the management of obesity specifically in The United States is currently facing a very real obesityepidemic. The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicates that approxi- Department of Medicine,New York Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center, mately two thirds of US adults are presently classified as overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥25) and one third as obese (BMI ≥30) [, ]. Although these numbers alone are formidable, they leave unaddressed the medical costs associated with obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.
Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Recent publications estimated that the annual medical burden of obesity and obesity-related conditions in the United Boston, MA 02118, USAe-mail: [email protected] States totaled roughly $147 billion in 2008 with othersprojecting obesity-related medical expenses to more than double by 2018, topping $344 billion, or about 21% of total Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, healthcare spending Therefore, it is essential to improve Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine,88 E. Newton Street, Robinson 4400, our treatment strategies for the management of obesity in order to effectively reduce the rate of obesity-related conditions, not the least of which is type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Weight gain is a side effect of several commonly used L. J. Aronne (*)Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, diabetes medications. Although medications such as insu- lin, sulfonureas, and the thiazolidinediones all effectively improve glycemic control and lower HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes, they also promote weight gain.
New York, NY 10065, USAe-mail: [email protected] Patients can gain as much as 10 kg in a relatively short period after initiating these medications []. Drug-induced naltrexone/bupropion) are actually novel combinations of weight gain can have many consequences, including patient drugs that have already received FDA approval as mono- noncompliance with treatment regimens once weight gain is therapies for different indications.
noted and health complications associated with the weightgain itself. As was seen in the Action to ControlCardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, tight glucose control without concomitant control of weight doesnot translate to improved outcomes for diabetics. In Orlistat is a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor that decreases ACCORD, extremely tight glucose control in the the absorption of dietary fat by 25% to 30% creating a intensive-therapy group led to higher rates of mortality as caloric deficit that has been shown to produce statistically compared to the standard-therapy group, which subsequent- significant weight loss. In a 4-year, randomized, double- ly led to the trial’s early discontinuation ]. What appears blind, placebo-controlled study of 3305 obese individuals noteworthy is that the intensive-therapy subjects also with and without impaired glucose tolerance [subjects gained weight in the process of having their glucose more lost 5.8 kg with orlistat 120 mg three times daily plus tightly controlled, with BMI significantly higher than the lifestyle modification as compared to 3.0 kg with lifestyle conventional-therapy group at the time of study discontin- modification plus placebo (P<0.001). After 4 years, the uation, and 28% of the intensive-therapy group gaining incidence of diabetes in the orlistat group (6.2%) was also greater than 10 kg compared to 14% in the conventional- found to be significantly lower than in the placebo group management group. Although effective control of serum (9%; P=0.003). As compared with placebo, subjects in the glucose in diabetic patients remains important, it cannot orlistat group also had significantly decreased waist come at the expense of worsening obesity. Even modest circumference (−6.4 cm vs −4.4 cm), systolic blood weight loss has been shown to significantly improve pressure (−4.9 mmHg vs −3.4 mmHg), diastolic blood multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pres- pressure (−2.6 mmHg vs −1.9 mmHg), total cholesterol sure and lipid parameters, while simultaneously improving levels (−7.9% vs −2.3%), and LDL cholesterol levels glycemic control []. A paradigm shift is clearly in order, (−12.8% vs −5.1%). Orlistat produces gastrointestinal side one that promotes weight-centric management of diabetes, effects if too much dietary fat is ingested, often limiting rather than a glucose-centric model.
tolerability. A half-dose (60 mg) formulation of orlistat isnow available over the counter []. Two separaterandomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluated the efficacy Indications for Pharmacotherapy and Available of thrice-daily orlistat 60 mg versus orlistat 120 mg in combination with lifestyle modification in obese adults overthe course of 2 years. After 1 year, mean weight loss was According to National Institutes of Health (NIH) guide- significantly greater in those receiving orlistat 60 mg (7.1– lines, pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity can be 8.5 kg) and orlistat 120 mg (7.9–9.4 kg) than with placebo considered if a patient has a BMI≥30, or has a BMI≥27 if (4.1–6.4 kg). Roughly two thirds of this weight loss was weight-related comorbidities, including hypertension, type maintained at the end of the second year in those on orlistat 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and/or obstructive sleep 60 mg (4.5–6.6 kg) and orlistat 120 mg (5.0–7.4 kg), and apnea, are present []. With the recent removal of sibutr- the losses remained significantly greater than with placebo amine from the US market, only orlistat is approved by the (1.7–4.3 kg). After 2 years, there were no significant US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the long-term changes in diastolic blood pressure noted in either study, treatment of obesity. However, there are numerous medi- although one of the two studies found that systolic blood cations used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes that can pressure was significantly reduced only in the 120-mg promote weight loss, including metformin, GLP-1 analogs, orlistat group. Both orlistat groups demonstrated significant and pramlintide. Medications such as DPP-4 inhibitors and improvements in serum lipid levels [].
α-glucosidase inhibitors are considered weight-neutral andtherefore are not addressed extensively in this review. Theanti-inflammatory salsalate, which has recently been shown to Weight-Centric Management of Type 2 Diabetes improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, appears weight neutral and is also not evaluated [, Thereare, however, investigational medications in the pipeline that may promote weight loss, such as lorcaserin, dapagliflozin,and leptin, that are addressed. Some of the investigational Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic medication approved medications being reviewed (phentermine/topiramate and as first-line therapy in the management of type 2 diabetes. It has been shown to promote mild weight loss by decreasing The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial hepatic glucose production and intestinal absorption of examined the long-term effects of intensive lifestyle glucose while improving insulin sensitivity by increasing intervention (ILI), including decreased caloric intake and peripheral glucose uptake and utilization In combination increased physical activity, as compared to a control with lifestyle intervention, metformin has proven to be a condition involving a program of diabetes support and potent first step in the management of type 2 diabetes education (DSE) in 5145 overweight volunteers with type 2 (Table In the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), 3234 diabetes. According to data from the first 4 years of this overweight and pre-diabetic subjects were treated with either trial, ILI participants had a greater percentage of weight lifestyle intervention, metformin 850 mg twice daily, or loss than DSE participants (−6.15% vs −0.88%; P<0.001) placebo and followed for an average of 2.8 years. Mean and greater improvements in HbA1c level (−0.36% vs weight loss was 0.1, 2.1, and 5.6 kg in the placebo, −0.09%; P<0.001), systolic (−5.33 vs −2.97 mmHg; P< metformin, and lifestyle-intervention groups, respectively 0.001) and diastolic (−2.92 vs −2.48 mmHg; P=0.01) (P<0.001). Participants taking metformin 850 mg twice blood pressure, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) daily reduced their risk of developing diabetes by 31%, with cholesterol (3.67 vs 1.97 mg/dL; P<0.001), and triglycer- 7.8% of the metformin group subjects developing diabetes ides (−25.56 vs −19.75 mg/dL; P<.001) []. Look each year during the study, compared with 11% in the AHEAD has helped to demonstrate that lifestyle interven- placebo group. The lifestyle group demonstrated the greatest tions can produce long-term weight loss and sustained improvement, with a 58% reduction in the development of beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risk factors.
diabetes (5% yearly rate). Blood pressure decreased in thelifestyle intervention group but increased in the metformin and placebo groups over time Additional randomizedcontrolled trials support the finding that metformin as Exenatide and liraglutide are injectable medications indi- monotherapy has not been found to affect blood pressure in cated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They act by patients with type 2 diabetes [, However, metformin mimicking the gastrointestinal incretin hormone glucagon- has been shown to significantly reduce levels of total and like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is normally released in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol Metformin is response to food intake. GLP-1 agonists enhance glucose- generally well tolerated but can cause gastrointestinal side dependent insulin secretion, suppress inappropriate gluca- effects. Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious complication that gon secretion (leading to decreased hepatic glucose output can occur due to excess metformin accumulation in the and decreased insulin demand), and slow gastric emptying.
bloodstream, primarily in the setting of significant renal Subsequently, GLP-1 agonists have been shown to improve glycemic control, decrease food intake, and enhance satiety.
Mild to moderate nausea is the most prevalent side effectnoted with the use of GLP-1 agonists ].
Table 1 Effect of medications and lifestyle intervention on A1c and A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial comparing twice-daily exenatide 5 μg and10 μg as monotherapy in 232 diabetic subjects demonstrated statistically significant weight loss of 2.8 kg and 3.1 kg for the5-μg and 10-μg groups, respectively, as compared to a loss of 1.4 kg for the placebo group. The exenatide groups also demonstrated a placebo-corrected reduction in HbA1c of 0.5% and 0.7% for the 5-μg and 10-μg groups, respectively, as well as significant, placebo-corrected improvements in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure for most treatment groups (systolic, −3.4 mmHg for both 5 and 10 μg; diastolic, Three separate 30-week trials were performed to assess the efficacy of twice-daily exenatide 5 μg or 10 μg versus placebo in combination with either maximally effective doses of metformin ], sulfonurea [or metformin plussulfonurea ] in 1446 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes; A1c glycated hemoglobin; AGIs alpha-glucosidase inhibitors; DPP- 314 subjects subsequently completed an optional 52-week IV dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1; TZDsthiazolidinediones open-label exenatide treatment extension. These subjects lost an average of 2.1 kg at week 30, with a total cumulative weight loss of 4.4 kg after the 52-week and metformin monotherapy plus placebo. The 1091 extension. At the end of the 52-week extension period, diabetic subjects had been using metformin monotherapy diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced for greater than 3 months prior to the study’s initiation, but (−2.7 mmHg) and a trend toward improvement was seen remained imperfectly controlled with respect to their with respect to systolic blood pressure (−1.3 mmHg) [ diabetes. At the end of 26 weeks, all treatment groups Significant improvements were also noted in mean showed significant reductions in HbA1c as compared to the HbA1c (−1.1%), total cholesterol (−2.4 mg/dL), HDL 0.1% HbA1c increase seen the metformin + placebo group cholesterol (+4.6 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (−1.6 mg/dL), (0.7% reduction for the 0.6-mg liraglutide group, and 1.0% reduction for the 1.2-mg liraglutide group, the 1.8-mg As therapy for type 2 diabetes, Horton et al. [ liraglutide group, and the glimepiride group). Weight loss compared 6280 subjects receiving exenatide, 5861 subjects was dose-dependent in the liraglutide treatment groups receiving sitagliptin, and 32,398 subjects receiving insulin (−1.8 kg, −2.6 kg, and −2.8 kg for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mg, in a retrospective analysis. Sitagliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor respectively) and was significantly different from the that works by inhibiting the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 weight gain seen in the glimepiride group (+1.0 kg). Weight (DPP-4), which is responsible for inactivating the incretin loss in the 1.2-mg and 1.8-mg liraglutide groups was also hormones GLP-1 and GIP, thus prolonging their activity in significantly greater than in the metformin + placebo group circulation [. Analysis demonstrated that exenatide- (−1.5 kg). In addition, the 1.2-mg and 1.8-mg liraglutide treated subjects lost an average of 3.0 ± 7.33 kg, groups had significant reductions in systolic blood pressure sitagliptin-treated subjects lost 1.1±5.39 kg, and insulin- of 3.2 mmHg and 2.7 mmHg respectively, compared with treated subjects gained 0.6±9.49 kg. Both systolic and an increase of 0.4 mmHg observed in the glimepiride diastolic blood pressure were reduced from baseline to group. The metformin + placebo and liraglutide 0.6-mg follow-up with all therapies, with reductions of 2.3 ± groups demonstrated trends toward improvement in systolic 17.6 mmHg (systolic) and 1.2±10.8 mmHg (diastolic) for blood pressure (−1.8 mmHg and −0.6 mmHg, respectively).
exenatide, 1.1±18.2 mmHg (systolic) and 0.6±10.8 mmHg There were no significant changes in diastolic blood (diastolic) for sitagliptin, and 1.8±21.3 mmHg (systolic) and 1.3±12.5 mmHg (diastolic) for insulin. Weight loss LEAD-5 ] was a 26-week, double-blind, placebo- was significantly associated with reductions in both systolic controlled trial that examined the effect of liraglutide and diastolic blood pressure in all treatment groups (P< 1.8 mg when added to metformin plus glimepiride as compared to insulin glargine (a long-acting, peakless basal Liraglutide is a long-acting GLP-1 analogue. Due to its insulin) when added to metformin plus glimepiride. After extended half-life ], liraglutide can be injected as a 26 weeks of treatment, the HbA1C reduction in the once-daily therapy. Liraglutide was studied in five separate liraglutide group was 1.33%, compared to 1.09% with phase 3 trials entitled Liraglutide Effect and Action in insulin glargine and 0.24% with placebo. The mean weight Diabetes (LEAD).The LEAD-3 trial •] was a 52-week, loss from baseline of 1.8 kg achieved in the liraglutide double-blind, active-control trial in which two different group was significantly greater than that in the placebo doses of liraglutide (1.2 mg and 1.8 mg) were compared group (−0.42 kg). Weight increased by 1.6 kg with insulin against glimepiride (a medium to long-acting sulfonurea) in glargine, resulting in a mean treatment difference of 746 individuals with type 2 diabetes. At 52 weeks, subjects −3.43 kg. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure were noted to have a 2.05 kg and a 2.45 kg of weight loss was also observed with liraglutide (−4.0 mmHg) as in the 1.2-mg and the 1.8-mg liraglutide groups, respec- compared with insulin glargine (+0.54 mmHg), but not in tively, as compared to a 1.12-kg weight gain associated comparison to placebo (−1.4 mmHg).
with the glimepiride group. At 52 weeks, liraglutide A once-weekly version of exenatide (ExQW) has been monotherapy was found to significantly lower HbA1c submitted to the FDA . DURATION 5 a 24-week (0.84% with liraglutide 1.2 mg and 1.14% with liraglutide comparison versus exenatide twice daily (ExBID), demon- 1.8 mg) as compared to glimepiride (0.51% decrease in strated that at week 24, ExQW produced significantly HbA1c). Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased by greater changes from baseline (least squares mean ±SE) 2.12 mmHg and 3.64 mmHg in the liraglutide 1.2-mg and versus ExBID in HbA1c (−1.6%±0.1% vs −0.9%±0.1%; 1.8-mg groups, respectively, as compared to a 0.69-mmHg P < 0.0001) and fasting plasma glucose (−35±5 mg/dL vs systolic blood pressure decrease in the glimepiride group.
−12±5 mg/dL; P=0.0008). Similar reductions in mean LEAD-2 [], a 26-week, double-blind, placebo- body weight from baseline to week 24 were observed in controlled trial, tested the efficacy of three different doses both groups (−2.3±0.4 kg and −1.4±0.4 kg). Both treat- of liraglutide (0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mg) when added to ments were generally well tolerated. Transient and metformin as compared with metformin plus glimepiride predominantly mild to moderate nausea, the most frequent adverse event, was less common with ExQW (14%) than 26 weeks (−0.68%) and 52 weeks (−0.62%). There were no with ExBID (35%). Injection-site reactions were infre- differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between quent, but more common with ExQW. No major hypogly- the placebo and pramlintide treatment groups.
Aronne et al. , ] assessed high-dose pramlintide monotherapy in 204 noninsulin-treated obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes. Subjects were randomized toreceive either high-dose pramlintide (88% of subjects Pramlintide mimics the pancreatic hormone amylin, which escalated to 240 μg TID) or placebo before meals for is normally secreted along with insulin from pancreatic β 16 weeks, without lifestyle intervention. Pramlintide pro- cells. Pramlintide is approved for use in both type 1 and duced a placebo-corrected weight loss of 3.6±0.6 kg and a type 2 diabetes in combination with mealtime insulin, and reduction in waist circumference of 3.6±1.1 cm in these doses vary for type 1 (30–60 μg subcutaneously before obese, noninsulin-treated subjects. Systolic blood pressure meals) and type 2 diabetes (60–120 μg subcutaneously decreased by 3.1±1.4 mmHg in the pramlintide group, as before meals). As an amylin analog, pramlintide may compared to a decrease of 1.4±1.8 mmHg in the placebo promote weight loss by slowing gastric emptying, increas- group. Diastolic blood pressure demonstrated a smaller ing satiety, decreasing postprandial glucagon secretion, and trend towards improvement, with a 2.4±0.8 mmHg de- centrally decreasing appetite and total caloric intake.
crease in the pramlintide group, as compared to a decrease Nausea and headache are the most prevalent side effects of 1.7±1.2 mmHg in the placebo group [].
Another study aimed at assessing the long-term efficacy Ratner et al. ] performed a 52-week, randomized, of pramlintide monotherapy in conjunction with lifestyle double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 479 type 1 diabetes intervention was conducted by Smith et al. ]. The study patients randomized to placebo, pramlintide 60 μg thrice consisted of a 4-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled daily (TID) or 60 μg four times daily (QID) in addition to period followed by an optional 8-month single-blind subjects’ normal insulin regimens. At week 52, HbA1c was extension period. The nondiabetic, obese subjects were significantly reduced in both the pramlintide 60-μg TID randomized to one of six pramlintide arms (120, 240, (−0.29%) and 60-μg QID groups (−0.34%) as compared to 360 μg BID and TID) or placebo. During the initial 4-month placebo (−0.04%). This improvement in glycemic control period, weight loss from baseline in the pramlintide arms was associated with weight reduction, which peaked at ranged from 3.8±0.7 kg to 6.1±0.8 kg, as compared to 2.8± week 26 in the 60-μg TID (−1.3 kg) and QID (−0.8 kg) 0.8 kg with placebo (evaluable n=270). By month 12, initial groups, compared to a 0.7 kg weight gain in the placebo 4-month weight loss was regained in the placebo and 120-μg group. At week 52, mean weight loss for both pramlintide BID pramlintide groups, but was maintained in all other groups was less notable (0.5 kg weight loss) but was still pramlintide groups (12-month evaluable n=146). Placebo- statistically different from the placebo group (0.8 kg weight corrected weight loss at month 12 for the 120-μg TID gain). Subgroup analysis shows that pramlintide prevented pramlintide group averaged 6.1±2.1 kg, with doses higher weight gain in lean subjects and induced weight loss in than 120 μg TID providing little additional benefit. Waist overweight and obese subjects compared to placebo-treated circumference in the pramlintide 120-μg TID group also subjects, who gained weight during the study. There were decreased 7.9±1.8 cm as compared to a decrease of 4.1± no differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure 2.1 cm in the placebo group. Furthermore, the pramlintide 120-μg TID group demonstrated a 4.9±2.1 mmHg reduction Hollander et al. [tested the efficacy of pramlintide in in systolic blood pressure as compared to a 0.3±3.2 mmHg 656 subjects with type 2 DM treated with insulin (alone or decrease seen in the placebo group, and diastolic blood in combination with sulfonylureas and/or metformin).
pressure also demonstrated a trend towards improvement During the 52-week trial, subjects were randomized to (3.0±1.5 mmHg decrease) as compared to a 0.4±2.8 mmHg pramlintide 90 μg twice daily (BID), 120 μg BID, 60 μg TID, or placebo. The 60 μg TID group was excluded fromstatistical analyses due to limited efficacy. Both remaining pramlintide groups showed significant weight reduction atweek 26 compared with placebo (−0.7 kg in the 90-μg BID Leptin is a cytokine secreted by adipose tissue (in group and −1.1 kg in the 120-μg BID group compared to proportion to the body’s quantity of adipose tissue) that +0.3 kg in the placebo group) but at week 52, significance plays an important role in the regulation of body weight.
was only sustained in the 120-μg BID group (−1.4 kg vs When secreted, leptin crosses the blood–brain barrier where +0.7 kg in the placebo group). Only the pramlintide 120-μg it binds to its receptor in the hypothalamus. Once bound, BID group had significant reductions in HbA1c at both leptin activates an intricate array of signals that inhibit food intake and increase energy expenditure. This complex Rasvussin et al. ] conducted a 24-week (4-week circuit has yet to be harnessed and fully utilized as an dietary lead-in period, 20-week medication-treatment peri- effective treatment modality for the treatment of obesity.
od), randomized, double-blind, active drug-controlled, Elevated levels of leptin have been found in most obese proof-of-concept study. The study population consisted of individuals, leading to the hypothesis that leptin resistance 177 obese or overweight subjects treated for 20 weeks with and decreased leptin signaling may be a contributing factor either a combination of pramlintide 360 μg BID and in the obesity epidemic by blunting satiety and energy metreleptin 5 mg BID or matched doses of either expenditure signals [. Furthermore, when an obese medication alone. The data demonstrate that combination individual begins a hypocaloric diet resulting in weight therapy led to significantly greater weight loss during the loss and fat mass is subsequently reduced, a decrease in 20-week treatment period (−12.7%±0.9%) than treatment circulating leptin levels in the face of existing leptin with pramlintide (−8.4%±0.9%; P<0.001) or metreleptin resistance further blunts leptin signaling. As an evolution- (−8.2%±1.3%; P<0.01) alone. The greater reduction in ary survival strategy, the body thereby defends its body fat body weight was significant as early as week 4, and weight by burning fewer calories and decreasing satiety signals.
loss continued throughout the study without evidence of a Thus, attempts at weight loss are often thwarted by a plateau ]. Unfortunately, development of antibodies to native leptin in two of the subjects has stalled this approach.
Low-dose, controlled-release phentermine plus topiramate has been studied as an investigational combination therapyfor the treatment of obesity. Topiramate, as monotherapy, is “The neurohormonal control of body weight involves a FDA approved as an anti-epileptic and for migraine complex interplay between long-term adiposity signals (e.g., prophylaxis. Phentermine is an adrenergic agonist FDA leptin), and short-term satiation signals (e.g., amylin)… approved for the short-term treatment of obesity that is Circulating leptin levels fall rapidly in response to diet- thought to promote weight loss by activation of the central induced weight loss, triggering a host of counter-regulatory and sympathetic nervous systems, with a subsequent metabolic, autonomic, and hormonal responses aimed at decrease in food intake and increased resting energy defending the initial body weight. Restoration of leptin concentrations to pre-weight-loss concentrations, via admin- A meta-analysis ] evaluated nine randomized con- istration of metreleptin, has been shown to mitigate weight- trolled trials of phentermine monotherapy for weight loss in obese subjects [The pooled analysis showed that Metreleptin (methionyl recombinant leptin) is an those treated with phentermine along with diet and lifestyle analog of human leptin. Preclinical and clinical evidence lost 3.6 kg more than those treated with diet and lifestyle recently published in Proceedings of the National alone. Given the increased release of norepinephrine Academy of Sciences of the United States of America promoted by phentermine, it has the potential to raise demonstrates that, when pramlintide and metreleptin are blood pressure and heart rate in some patients [, A administered in combination, leptin responsiveness is at recent study by Hendricks et al. [examined the impact least partially restored by amylin agonism (ie, leptin of treatment with phentermine monotherapy and a low- sensitivity is increased). Experiments in diet-induced carbohydrate diet in 300 obese subjects. Weight loss was obese rats that were co-administered amylin and leptin significantly greater in the phentermine group as compared resulted in synergistic reductions in food intake (up to to placebo beginning at week 1 and continuing through 45%) and body weight (up to 15%), effects considerably week 104 (P=0.0144). Additionally, at 52 weeks, systolic greater than with leptin or amylin treatment alone. Weight and diastolic blood pressure had decreased from baseline in loss with amylin/leptin treatment was fat specific and not both groups (phentermine: systolic −7.3 mmHg, diastolic accompanied by a reduction in lean mass. Translational −5.4 mmHg; placebo: systolic −8.9 mmHg, diastolic clinical research confirms that findings in the nonclinical −6.3 mmHg) but the blood pressure difference between experiments are relevant to human obesity and suggest groups was not significant despite greater weight loss in the that metreleptin and pramlintide, when co-administered, phentermine group. Heart rate changes in the phentermine may be effective in the treatment of human obesity. The and placebo groups were also not significantly different at medication was generally well tolerated, with nausea and 26 weeks (phentermine −0.9 beats per minute [bpm]; injection site adverse events observed as the most placebo −3.5 bpm) or 52 weeks (phentermine +1.2 bpm; In the 56-week CONQUER phase 3 trial, 2487 over- demonstrated a 1.5-mmHg reduction in mean systolic and weight or obese adults with two or more co-morbidities diastolic blood pressure during the first 12 weeks of the study, (including hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes or pre- with further blood pressure reductions afterwards ranging diabetes, or abdominal obesity) were randomly assigned from 1.5 to 3 mmHg below baseline levels. Pulse rate to once-daily phentermine 7.5 mg plus topiramate 46.0 mg, remained stable in the placebo group, and was found to be once-daily phentermine 15.0 mg plus topiramate 92.0 mg, elevated 1.5 to 2.5 bpm above baseline in the combination or placebo. At 56 weeks, change in body weight was treatment groups [•]. These results prompted an FDA −1.4 kg, −8.1 kg, and −10.2 kg in the placebo group, request for cardiovascular outcome studies, which has phentermine 7.5 mg plus topiramate 46.0 mg, and phenter- presently halted NB’s progression toward US approval.
mine 15.0 mg plus topiramate 92.0 mg groups, respectively.
Additional adverse events include nausea, constipation, Reductions in systolic blood pressure of −4.7 mmHg and −5.6 mmHg were also seen in the phentermine 7.5 mg plustopiramate 46 mg and phentermine 15 mg plus topiramate92 mg groups, respectively, as compared to −2.4 mmHg for the placebo group. Less significant reductions in diastolicblood pressure of −3.4 mmHg and −3.8 mmHg were seen in the phentermine 7.5 mg plus topiramate 46 mg andphentermine 15 mg plus topiramate 92 mg groups, Lorcaserin is an investigational selective serotonin 2C respectively, as compared to −2.7 mmHg for the placebo receptor agonist. The serotonin 2C receptor is expressed group [].The most significant side effects included dry in many areas of the brain, including the hypothalamus, an area involved in the control of appetite and metabolism.
Agonism of this hypothalamic receptor is thought topromote appetite suppression and increased satiety that may promote significant weight loss.
The phase 3 BLOOM trial •] evaluated lorcaserin A sustained-release (once-daily) combination of naltrexone 10 mg BID as compared to placebo in 3182 overweight and and bupropion (NB) was recently investigated as a weight obese adults concomitantly receiving diet and exercise loss therapy. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist FDA counseling. After 52 weeks, average weight loss was 5.8± approved for the treatment of opioid addiction and alcohol 0.2 kg in the lorcaserin group and 2.2±0.1 kg in the dependence. Bupropion is a norepinephrine and dopamine placebo group (P<0.001). As compared to placebo, waist reuptake inhibitor FDA approved as an antidepressant and circumference (−6.8± 0.2 cm vs −3.8± 0.2 cm), total cholesterol (−0.9±0.33 mg/dL vs +0.57±0.34 mg/dL), LDL NB was studied in a 56-week, randomized, double-blind, cholesterol (+2.87±0.56 mg/dL vs +4.03±0.58 mg/dL), placebo-controlled phase 3 trial that included 1742 indi- triglyceride levels (−6.1% ±1.03% vs −0.14% ±0.99%) viduals with either uncomplicated obesity (BMI 30–45) or HbA1c (−0.03%±0.01% vs +0.03%±0.01%), heart rate BMI≥27 to 45 with co-morbidities, including hypertension (−2.0±0.3 vs −1.6±0.4), systolic blood pressure (−1.4±0.3 or dyslipidemia. Participants were prescribed a hypocaloric vs −0.8±0.3 mmHg), and diastolic blood pressure (−1.1±0.2 diet and exercise regimen, and were assigned to receive vs −0.6±0.2 mmHg) were also significantly decreased in the once-daily naltrexone 32 mg plus bupropion 360 mg, once lorcaserin group. The most common adverse reaction was daily naltrexone 16 mg plus bupropion 360 mg, or placebo mild or moderate headache, and no significant increase in for 56 weeks. Mean change in bodyweight was −1.3% in cardiac valve abnormalities was noted during the treatment the placebo group, −6.1% in the naltrexone 32 mg plus period. Information regarding lorcaserin in combination with bupropion group, and −5.0% in the naltrexone 16 mg plus other medications is currently unavailable.
bupropion group. Subjects taking NB also showed signif-icant improvements in risk factors associated with meta- bolic syndrome including triglycerides, HDL cholesterol,waist circumference, and fasting glucose. A transient Dapagliflozin is an investigational medication that inhibits increase of approximately 1.5 mmHg in mean systolic and the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), and it has diastolic blood pressure during the first 8 weeks of combina- been found to improve glycemic control in subjects with tion treatment was followed by a return to baseline after week type 2 diabetes while also promoting weight loss. SGLT2 is 12, and was subsequently followed by a 1-mmHg decrease a transport protein located in the kidney that is responsible below baseline in the naltrexone plus bupropion groups for the for glucose reabsorption. Inhibition of SGLT2 by medi- remainder of the study. In comparison, the placebo group cations such as dapagliflozin promotes urinary excretion of glucose, thus reducing blood glucose levels when given to L.I. Igel: none. A.G. Powell: none. C.M. Apovian is a paid advisory board member for Amylin, Merck, Johnson and diabetics with hyperglycemia and also directly excreting Johnson, Abbott, Sanofi-Aventis, Allergan, Orexigen, and Arena; has calories in the form of glycosuria []. A 24-week, provided expert testimony for Allergan and Orexigen; and has randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial received grants from the Atkins Foundation, Amylin, and MetaPro- was performed on 546 individuals with type 2 diabetes teomics. L.J. Aronne is a paid scientific advisory board member forand has had travel expenses reimbursed by Orexigen, Ethicon Endo- treated with metformin •]. After 24 weeks, individuals Surgery, Novo Nordisk, VIVUS, Amylin, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, receiving once-daily dapagliflozin 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg Merck, and Johnson and Johnson; is a consultant for NeuroSearch, plus metformin demonstrated a significant reduction in Takeda, GlaxoSmithKline, Abbott, Wyeth, and Allergan; has provided HbA1c of −0.67%, −0.70%, and −0.84%, respectively, expert testimony for VIVUS; has received grants from Orexigen,Novo Nordisk, Amylin, F. Hoffman-La Roche, Pfizer, Merck, Arena, compared to −0.30% for placebo (P<0.0005 for all treatment VIVUS, Schering-Plough, TransTech Pharma, MetaCure, and Metab- arms). Additionally, at 24 weeks, the change in total body olous Pharmaceuticals; and owns stock/stock options in Atlas weight was −2.2 kg for dapagliflozin 2.5 mg, −3.0 kg for Therapeutics and Cardiometabolic Support Network.
dapagliflozin 5 mg, and −2.9 kg for dapagliflozin 10 mg,compared to −0.9 kg for placebo (P<0.0001 for allcomparisons). Waist circumference decreased in all treatment groups (−1.7 cm, −2.7 cm and −2.5 cm for the dapagliflozin2.5 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg, respectively) as compared to Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been placebo (−1.3 cm). Significant placebo-corrected reductions in systolic blood pressure (ranging from −1.9 to −4.9 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (ranging from −1.7 to −2.4 mmHg) were observed in all treatment groups.
1. American Heart Association. Overweight and Obesity Statistics – 2009 Rates of genital infections were higher for the dapagliflozin treatment arms as compared to placebo (8.0–13.1% vs 2. • Flegal KM, Carroll MD, et al. Prevalence and trends in obesity 5.1%), likely from the increased urinary glucose excretion.
among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA. 2010;303(3):235–41. The A recent meta-analysis [of the SGLT2 inhibitors authors examined trends in obesity from 1999 through 2008 and evaluated seven randomized controlled trials ranging from also assessed the prevalence of obesity and overweight for 2007–2008. The authors found a very high prevalence of obesity in the 2 to 48 weeks in duration with variable-dose dapagliflozin US (32.2% among adult men and 35.5% among adult women).
and found that average HbA1c was significantly reduced 3. FinkelsteinEA JGTrogdon, et al. Annual medical spending (−0.52%), as was body mass index (−1.17%), systolic attributable to obesity: payer-and service-specific estimates. Heal blood pressure (−4.08 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure Aff. 2009;28(5):w822–31. Available at: (−1.16 mmHg), and serum uric acid (−41.50 μmol/L).
4. United Health Foundation. America’s Health Rankings —20th Dapagliflozin treatment increased the risk of urinary and Anniversary highlights (2010). Available at: 5. Aronne LJ. A practical guide to drug-induced weight gain.
Minneapolis: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 77–91.
6. • Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(24):2545–59. The authors examined whether intensive glucose Although eating too much and exercising too little are lowering therapy targeting normal glycated hemoglobin levelswould reduce cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 clearly involved in the multifactorial genesis of obesity, the diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or propensity to gain weight is inherited and impacted upon by additional cardiovascular risk factors. The authors found that behavioral tendencies, cultural influences, and environmen- intensive glucose lowering therapy actually increased mortality tal cues. Many of the medications available for the and did not significantly reduce major cardiovascular events inthis high-risk population.
treatment of diabetes and related conditions may also 7. Anderson JW, Konz EC. Obesity and disease management: effects of contribute to obesity. Unfortunately, once weight has been weight loss on comorbid conditions. Obes Res. 2001;9:326S–34S.
gained, a series of overlapping neuroendocrine responses 8. NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative Working Group: The prevents it from easily diminishing. Furthermore, once Practical Guide: Identification, Evaluation and Treatment ofOverweight and Obesity in Adults. NIH/NHLBI/NAASO; October weight is effectively lost, a system of counter-regulatory mechanisms increases the hunger response and decreases 9. Goldfine AB, Fonseca V, Jablonski KA, et al. The effects of metabolic rate as a compensatory reaction evolutionarily salsalate on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a designed to prevent starvation. Therefore, pharmacologic randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(6):346–57.
10. Koska J, Ortega E, et al. The effect of salsalate on insulin action agents that assist patients in overcoming these neuroendo- and glucose tolerance in obese non-diabetic patients: results of a crine and counter-regulatory responses are necessary in randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Diabetologia, order to produce long-lasting weight loss.
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. 2009;52:385–93.
11. Over-the-counter weight loss with orlistat? Drug Ther Bull.
in patients with type 2 diabetes: an interim analysis of data from the open-label, uncontrolled extension of three double-blind, 12. Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, et al. XENical in the prevention of placebo controlled trials. Clin Ther. 2007;29:139–53.
diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study. Diabetes Care.
29. Horton ES, Silberman C, et al. Weight loss, glycemic control, and changes in cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with type 2 13. Genentech USA, Inc. Xenical (Orlistat) Package Insert. Revised diabetes receiving incretin therapies or insulin in a large cohort database. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(8):1759–65.
30. Merck & Co., INC. Januvia (Sitagliptin) Package Insert. 9984404.
14. Hauptman J, et al. Orlistat in the long-term treatment of obesity in primary care settings. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:160–7.
15. Rössner S, et al. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and improved 31. Bray G. Gastrointestinal hormones and weight management.
cardiovascular risk factors after 2 years treatment with orlistat for 32. Russell-Jones D, et al. Molecular, pharmacological and clinical 16. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Glucophage (metformin) pack- aspects of liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;297(1–2):137–40.
33. • Garber A, Henry R, Ratner R, et al. Liraglutide versus 17. Knowler WC, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes glimepiride monotherapy for type 2 diabetes (LEAD-3 Mono): with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002;346 randomised, 52-week, phase III, double-blind, parallel-treatment trial. Lancet. 2009;373:473–81. The authors investigated the 18. DeFronzo RA, Goodman AM. Efficacy of metformin in patients safety and efficacy of liraglutide as monotherapy as compared with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. NEJM. 1995;333 to glimepiride monotherapy in 746 subjects with type 2 diabetes over 52 weeks. They found that liraglutide was effective in the 19. Robinson AC, Burke J, et al. The effects of metformin on treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and led to greater reductions glycemic control and serum lipids in insulin-treated NIDDM in HbA1c, weight, and blood pressure than did glimepiride patients with suboptimal metabolic control. Diabetes Care.
34. Nauck MA, Frid A, Hermansen K, et al. Efficacy and safety 20. Wulffele MG, Kooy A, de Zeeuw D, et al. The effect of comparison of liraglutide, glimepiride, and placebo, all in metformin on blood pressure, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides combination with metformin in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care.
in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. J Intern Med.
35. Blevins T, Pullman J, Malloy J, Yan P, Taylor K, Schulteis C, et 21. • The Look AHEAD Research Group (2010). Long term effects of al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1301–10. Epub 2011 Feb 9.
a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in DURATION-5: exenatide once weekly resulted in greater individuals with type 2 diabetes: four year results of the Look improvements in glycemic control compared with exenatide twice AHEAD trial. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(17):1566–75. The daily in patients with type 2 diabetes.
authors examined the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention as 36. Amylin Pharmaceuticals. Symlin (pramlintide) Package Insert.
compared to a control condition of diabetes support and 812003-CC Revised July 2008. Available at: education on changes in weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 5145 overweight or obese subjects with 37. Ratner RE, Dickey R, Fineman M, et al. Amylin replacement with type 2 diabetes over 4 years. They found that intensive lifestyle pramlintide as an adjunct to insulin therapy improves long-term intervention produced sustainable weight loss as well as improve- glycaemic and weight control in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a 1-year ments in fitness, glycemic control, and cardiovascular disease risk randomized controlled trial. Diabet Med. 2004;11:1204–12.
38. Younk LM, Mikeladze M, et al. Pramlintide and the treatment of 22. Amylin Pharmaceuticals and Eli Lilly & Company. Byetta Package diabetes: a review of the data since its introduction. Expert Opin 23. Moretto T, Milton D, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of exenatide 39. Hollander PA, Levy P, Fineman MS, et al. Pramlintide as an monotherapy over 24 weeks in antidiabetic drug—naive patients adjunct to insulin therapy improves long-term glycemic and with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- weight control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year controlled, parallel-group study. Clin Ther. 2008;30(8):1448–60.
randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2003;3:784–90.
24. DeFronzo RA, Ratner RE, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron 40. Aronne L, et al. Progressive reduction in body weight after AD. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control and treatment with the amylin analog pramlintide in obese subjects: a weight over 30 weeks in metformin-treated patients with type 2 phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study. J diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:1092–100.
Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(8):2977–83.
25. Buse JB, Henry RR, Han J, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD.
41. Aronne LJ, Isoldi KK, Roarke DT. The Johns Hopkins Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 University textbook of dyslipidemia chapter 24: therapeutic weeks in sulfonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes.
options for modifying obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Kwiterovich PO, editor. Lippincott, Williams and 26. Kendall DM, Riddle MC, Rosenstock J, et al. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control over 30 weeks in patients with 42. Smith SR, et al. Sustained weight loss following 12-month type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin and a sulfonyl- pramlintide treatment as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention in urea. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:1083–91.
obesity. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(9):1816–23.
27. Blonde L, Klein EJ, et al. Interim analysis of the effects of 43. Ravussin E, Smith SR, et al. Enhanced weight loss with exenatide treatment on A1C, weight and cardiovascular risk pramlintide/metreleptin: an integrated neurohormonal approach factors over 82 weeks in 314 overweight patients with type 2 to obesity pharmacotherapy. Obesity. 2009;17(9):1736–43.
diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006;8(4):436–47.
44. Amylin Pharmaceuticals press release July 9, 2009. Amylin 28. Buse JB, Klonoff DC, et al. Metabolic effects of two years of Pharmaceuticals Announces Positive Results from dose ranging exenatide treatment on diabetes, obesity, and hepatic biomarkers clinical study of Pramlintide/Metreleptin Combination Treatment multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9741):595–605. The authors assessed the 45. Amylin Pharmaceuticals press release October 1, 2008. Amylin effect of sustained-release naltrexone and bupropion on bodyweight Pharmaceuticals to Present Novel Data on Promising Obesity in 1742 overweight and obese subjects and found that the Pipeline at 2008 Annual Scientific Meeting of the Obesity Society.
combination promoted significant weight loss as well as improve- ments in many metabolic risk factors.
53. • Smith SR, Weissman NJ, et al. Multicenter, placebo-controlled 46. Kaplan LM. Pharmacologic therapies for obesity. Gastroenterol trial of lorcaserin for weight management. N Engl J Med.
2010;363(3):245–56. The authors evaluated the use lorcaserin 47. Haddock CK, Poston WS, Dill PL, Foreyt JP, Ericsson M.
as compared to placebo in 3182 overweight and obese adults over Pharmacotherapy for obesity: a quantitative analysis of four 52 weeks. They found that lorcaserin promoted significant weight decades of published randomized clinical trials. Int J Obes Relat loss as well as improvements in many metabolic risk factors.
54. Katsuno K, Fujimori Y, Takemura Y, Hiratochi M, Itoh F, 48. Li Z, Maglione M, Tu W, et al. Meta-analysis: pharmacologic Komatsu Y, et al. Sergliflozin, a novel selective inhibitor of treatment of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:532–46.
low-affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2), validates 49. Bray GA, Ryan DH. Drug treatment of the overweight patient.
the critical role of SGLT2 in renal glucose reabsorption and Gastroenterology. 2007;132:2239–52.
modulates plasma glucose level. J Pharmacol Exp Ther.
50. Hendricks EJ, Greenway FL, Westman EC, Gupta AK. Blood pressure and heart rate effects, weight loss and maintenance 55. • Bailey CJ, Gross JL, et al. Effect of dapagliflozin in patients during long-term phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity.
with type 2 diabetes who have inadequate glycaemic control with Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Apr 28. [Epub ahead of print].
metformin: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
51. • Gadde KM, et al. Effects of low-dose, controlled-release, Lancet 2010;375(9733):2223–33. The authors evaluated the phentermine plus topiramate combination on weight and associ- adjunct use of dapagliflozin in 546 individuals with type 2 ated comorbidities in overweight and obese adults (CONQUER): diabetes treated with metformin over 24 weeks. They found that a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2011;377 dapagliflozin promoted significant weight loss as well as (9774):1341–52. The authors assessed the efficacy and safety of improved glycemic and blood pressure control.
phentermine plus topiramate controlled-release combination in 56. Musso G, Gambino R, et al. A novel approach to control 2487 individuals who were overweight and obese with two or hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: Sodium glucose co-transport more risk factors. They found that phentermine plus topiramate (SGLT) inhibitors. Systematic review and meta-analysis of produced significant weight loss as well as improvement in many randomized trials. Ann Med. 2011; Apr 15. [Epub ahead of metabolic risk factors over the 56 weeks of the trial.
52. • Greenway FL, Fujioka K, et al. Effect of naltrexone plus 57. Siram AT, Yanagisawa R, Skamagas M. Weight management in bupropion on weight loss in overweight and obese adults (COR-I): a type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mount Sinai J Med. 2010;77:533–48.

Source: http://leonigelmd.com/Articles/Advances%20in%20Medical%20Therapy%20for%20Weight%20Loss.pdf

Presentation by marcel brasey (geneva/switzerland) at congress “the alzheimer’s disease: a social challenge” on june 5, 2009 i

Presentation by Marcel Brasey (Geneva/Switzerland) at Congress “The Alzheimer’s disease: a social challenge” on June 5, 2009 in Paris/France ( Translated from French by Mitchell Slutzky ) Ladies and gentlemen, Hello! My name is Marcel Brasey. I am 65 years old and I am Swiss-German. For the past 10 years, I have lived with the diagnosis of probable dementia of the Alzheimer’s


IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPY University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin USA I. Can We Evaluate the Immune System? A. Several common and uncommon skin diseases of companion animals are theorized to involve host immunodeficiency as at least part of the pathogenesis. Evaluation of immunologic function of the patient seems to be a logical clinical step. “Immunostimulatory” therapy has th

Copyright ©2010-2018 Medical Science