Microsoft word - toxicity of local products pesticides.doc
HOME AND GARDEN PESTICIDES currently used in San Juan County, WA
Some products have multiple formulas; each is listed here separately
Malathion 50 Insect Spray Dilutable Concentrate
Sevin Insect Spray Dilutable Concentrate
Soil & Turf Insect Control Concentrate
Bayer Advanc 2-in-1 Systemic Rose & Flower Care
Bayer Advanc All-in-One Rose & Flower Care Concentrate
Bayer Advanc Dual Action Rose & Flower Insect Killer
Bayer Advanc Home Pest Control Indoor & Outdoor Insect Killer
Liquid Rotenone-Pyrethrins Spray Concentrate
Termite & Carpenter Ant Killer Concentrate
Termite & Carpenter Ant Killer Ready-to-Use
Diatomaceous Earth Crawling Insect Killer
Eaton's Answe Boric Acid Insecticidal Dust
Instant Knockdown Wasp & Hornet Killer
Borer Bagworm Leafminer Tent Caterpillar Spray
Indoor/Outdoor Multipurpose Insect Spray
Schultz Fruit & Vegetable Insect Spray
Garden Tech Sevin Ready-to-Spray Bug Killer
Garden Tech Sevin-5 Ready-to-Use 5% Dust Bug Killer
Lawn & Garden Insect Spray Conc w/ Spinosad
Garden, Pet & Livestock Insect Control Concentr
Grasshopper, Earwig, Cutworm & Sowbug Bait
Borer & Leaf Miner Spray Concentrate
Bug-geta Plus Snail, Slug & Insect Killer
Garden & Landscape Insect Killer Max
Lawn & Garden Insect Killer Max Concentrate
Mosquito-B-Gon Tree, Shrub & Lawn Spray
Orthenex Insect & Disease Control Concentrate
ProSelect Roach, Ant & Spider Killer
Rose Pride Rose & Shrub Disease Control Conc
Termite & Carpenter Ant Killer Concentrate
Volck Oil Spray Dormant Season Insect Killer
Caterpillar Killer for Trees, Shrubs & Vegetables
Houseplant Insect Killing Soap Seaweed Extract II ? Fatty acid salts
Bug Stop Garden & Lawn Insect Control Concen
Bug Stop Indoor Plus Outdoor Insect Killer
Immunox Plus Insect & Disease Control
Immunox Plus Insect & Disease Consentrate
Triazicide Once & Done Insect Killer [granules]
Triazicide Soil & Turf Insect Killer Concentrate
Ant Killer Plus Outdoor Multi-Purpose Insect Cont
Toxicity rankings are based on acute LC50, the concentration of each active ingredient that kills 50% of the animals exposed to it within a few hours. Persistence rankings are based on the maximum number of days that ingredients remain bioactive in soils or freshwater, experimentally. BCF (bio-concentration factor) is an index calculated from experimental data. The original source of the fates and effects data summarized in this table is the European Community ecotoxicity database FOOTPRINT.
In this table, red blocks indicate that that the active ingredients in the product are at least 1000 times more toxic than the least toxic alternative active ingredients in the products we have analyzed; or that they persist for six months or longer; or have a bio-concentration factor of 500 or greater. White blocks do not mean that a product is “safe,” only that it is less toxic or persistent.
The number of red blocks for each product is shown in the Q (quotient) box following the product name. If this number is four or more, the Q box is red: we recommend that you do not use this product in San Juan County. If the number is 1 to 3, the Q box is yellow; these products are still very toxic to wildlife, especially aquatic wildlife, even if they are handled carefully. Green boxes indicate products that are not acutely very toxic to wildlife in small quantities, although they may be toxic in large concentrations. Use them with care. Some are very persistent in the environment, and accumulate over time.
Many products have gray boxes marked. Gray means that there are insufficient data to evaluate the product’s ecotoxicity at this time. It includes many “natural” products that are becoming quite popular. We recommend that you read the following notes as part of deciding whether you should consider these products relatively “safe”. Bearing in mind the Precautionary Principle—if the impacts are unknown, assume that the product is unsafe until there is reliable evidence to the contrary—we have marked several products as red (not recommended) because they are very toxic to some animals and still unknown with respect to others. Also, remember that “fatty acid”-based products are surfactants, and like cleaning products should only be used sparingly outdoors.
1. This microbe is specific to butterflies and moths (Lepidotera), so bear in mind that it will not only kill “pests” but also kill all of
our beautiful (and often rare) island butterflies. It has also been shown to have adverse effects on freshwater fish.
2. Essential oils such as capsaicin (from chiles), thujol (from cedars), allycin (from garlic), mint oil, clove oil, and cinnamon oil
have mainly been studied in relation to their uses in cosmetics and flavorings. Their environmental persistence and toxicity to non-human animals is largely unstudied. However, since plants have evolved these compounds as chemical defenses to insects and other herbivores—and they have been used for years as “natural” insecticides—it is presumed that they are also acutely toxic to fish and other aquatic wildlife, although we do not yet know precisely how toxic they may be.
3. Diatomaceous earth consists chiefly of fossil diatoms, which are essentially bits of sharp broken biotic glass. They can injure
small soil arthropods and insects that ingest them. The amounts that are toxic to larger animals is not known.
4. Petroleum is a mixture of hundreds of chemical compounds, most of which are toxic to some degree. The main concerns for
the environment are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, which can be 5% or more of petroleum. We have based our ranking of petroleum on its PAH content, but actual aggregate toxicity of some products may be greater.
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Efficacy of Pantoea agglomerans strain HIP32 against Erwinia amylovora Tamás Bubán1 * , Tamás Lakatos1, Tímea Tóth1, László Dorgai 2, Ildikó Hudák3, Mária Hevesi4 1Research and Extension Centre for Fruit Growing, 4244 Újfehértó P.O.Box 38., Hungary 3Biotechn. Laboratory, Res. Centre of the Debrecen University, 4400 Nyíregyháza, Hungary 4Corvinus University, Faculty of