ECHINACEA COMMON NAME: PURPLE CONE FLOWER, BLACK SAMPSON LATIN NAME: Echinacea purpurea, E augustifolia, E pallida FAMILY Compositae HISTORY: Commonly used by American Native people for a wide range of illnesses, including burns, wounds, abscesses, insect bites, infections, toothache, joint pain and also snake bite. In particular the plains tribes regarded e. augustifolia as a cure-all, and it was listed in the U.S. national formulary from 1916 to 1950. These three species have similar constituents and are used interchangeable. E purpurea is now considered the most effective detoxicant in Western medicine for the circulatory, respiratory and lymphatic systems and has been adopted by Ayurvedic practitioners. The name comes from the Greek “echinos” which means hedge hog and refers to the prickly scales of the flowers central cone. BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION: Echinacea purpurea is a tall rhizomatous perennial with ovate-lancelot leaves. Purple honey scented daisylike flowers with conical orange-brown centres are produced in summer and early autumn. The other two varieties mentioned Echinacea augustifolia is 0.6m tall and E pallida is usually 0.3-0.9 m tall and has white pollen and a paler flower. TYPE: PERENNIAL HEIGHT: 0.5-1.5 M SPREAD: 45CM HARDINESS ZONES: 3-10 HABITAT: Native to Mid Western North America, cultivated in Europe and naturalized or cultivated over most of North America. Prefers rich, well drained soil in full sun. PROPAGATION: By seed sown in spring or by root cuttings in late winter and by division when dormant. Echinacea augustifolia and pallida are very difficult to germinate from seed and usually needs cold period of 30- 90 days and possible pretreatment with ethrel,expected germination rates for these two species is generally less than 40%. PARTS USED: All parts can be used but it is the root/rhizomes that are considered the most potent. HARVEST: Unearth roots in fall and use fresh for extraction. CONSTITUENTS: Both water and fat soluble components are needed for maximum effect.
caffeic acid derivatives-mainly in roots
alkylamides-tingling of tongue, mildly anesthetic
other chemical-alkaloids, resins, glycoproteins,sterols,
PROPERTIES: A bitter, slightly aromatic, alterative herb that stimulates the immune system, promotes healing (vulnerary), and has antiviral and antibacterial properties. INDICATIONS: infections-colds, flu,upper respiratory tract infections, uro-genital infections particularly candidiasis snake
healing-anti-inflammatory and vulnerary for burns,abscesses, wounds, eczema, herpes,
arthritis-for its anti-inflammatory effects
allergies-used as a tonic for food allergies, environmental sensitivities, hay fever and any other
allergy not related to long-term immune deficiency.
cancer-with or without chemotherapy, as it raises levels of white blood cells
DOSAGE: DECOCTION 1/2-1 tsp. /cup water, take 1 cup tid.
Here is a table of the “Suggested Dose Schedule” from “Echinacea- The Immune Herb” by Christopher Hobbs (June 1996) Note* Capsules and Tablets refer to dry root preparations. TYPE OF DOSE
Christoper Hobbs recommends the following types of doses for these conditions:
Rhematoid Arthritis-Tonic Dose for anti-inflammatory effect along with one feverfew tablet every day.
Allergies-Tonic Dose can be used along with Goldenseal and Eyebright
Toothaches and mouth and gum infections-Gargle and swish extract, then swallow; apply full strength to
the infected area 3-5 times daily; may add propolis or myrrh liquid extract.
Bites and stings-apply full strength on the bite and take internally
Blood and Food Poisoning-take large doses internally(1-4 dropperfull or 4 capsules every 2 hours)
Boils, carbuncles,abscesses-apply externally and take full course internally
Eczema-use maintenance dose internally; may use Viola tricolour liquid extract.
COMBINATIONS: This herb works well combined with many others depending on the effects desired. CONTRAINDICATIONS/WARNINGS: Conflicting reports of appropriateness in HIV and AIDS because of stimulation of T cell replication and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) may support virus replication. *MAKE SURE YOU HAVE GENUINE ECHINACEA- EITHER Echinacea purpurea or augustifolia OR A MIXTURE IS SATISFACTORY. -MANY ADULTERANTS USED IN SOME COMMERCIAL PREPARATION. KETTLEBY HERB [email protected] 970731EC
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NUTRITION ISSUES IN GASTROENTEROLOGY, SERIES #17 Carol Rees Parrish, R.D., MS, Series Editor When Chyle Leaks: Nutrition Management Options Chylous leakage from the lymphatic system is a complex problem usually resulting from injury or abnormality of the thoracic duct. Although rare, when such leaks occur, they are often difficult to manage and correct. Nutrition therapy plays a major