Jama patient page | lyme disease

The Journal of the American Medical Association INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Lyme Disease
Lyme disease is an infection caused by a kind of bacteria (germ) called a spirochete. This bacterium, Borrelia
burgdorferi, is transmitted by the bite of an infected deer tick. It is the most common tick-borne infection in both North America and Europe. Diagnosis is based on a variety of symptoms, physical findings, blood tests, and a history of exposure to infected ticks. The June 20, 2007, issue of JAMA includes an article that discusses a rash called
erythema migrans (see below) as a clinical sign that is consistent with a diagnosis of early Lyme disease and other related
tick-borne diseases.
• Erythema migrans (EM)—About 70% to 80% of infected individuals will develop a red rash at the site of the tick bite. Over a period of days to weeks, the rash grows larger and the center may fade, creating a “bull’s-eye” or ring appearance. The rash rarely • Arthritis—About 60% of untreated individuals will go on to develop arthritis. The joints become swollen and painful, making daily activities burdensome.
• Neurological symptoms—The spread of Lyme disease to the nervous system can cause Bell palsy (a facial droop due to muscle paralysis) or a form of meningitis. Later
neurological symptoms may include memory loss, inability to concentrate, and muscle weakness with tingling and numbness in the arms and legs.
• Other symptoms—Less common symptoms include eye inflammation (redness and
swelling), fatigue, sleep disturbance, stiff neck, fever, and body aches.
JAMA’s Web site at www.jama.com. Many are available in English and Once the diagnosis has been made, Lyme disease is treated with antibiotics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin or ibuprofen are helpful for
Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Family PREVENTION
The best way to prevent Lyme disease is to prevent tick bites: • Use protective clothing—wear long-sleeved shirts and pants.
• Use insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin.
• Apply an acaricide (a chemical that kills ticks) to your yard in
• Check your skin, your children’s skin, and your pets for ticks after time spent outdoors. The nymph stage of deer ticks, the most important source of Lyme disease transmission, is barely visible (less than 1/16 inch before feeding). You are not likely to get Lyme disease if the tick has been attached to your skin for less than 24 to 48 hours.
• Remove plants that attract deer and periodically clean leaves, brush, tall grasses, and woodpiles from around your house.
• Minimize exposure to wooded areas and shady grasslands during the spring and summer months.
The JAMA Patient Page is a public service of JAMA. The information and recommendations appearing on this page are appropriate in most instances, but they are not a substitute for medical diagnosis. For specific information concerning your personal medical condition, JAMA suggests that you consult your physician. This page may be photocopied noncommercial y by physicians and other health care professionals to share with patients. To purchase bulk 2664 JAMA, June 20, 2007—Vol 297, No. 23

Source: http://www.immumed.de/JAMA%20Borreliose.pdf

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