Using SSRI Antidepressants and Other
Newer Antidepressants to Treat Depression in Young People:
What are the issues and what is the evidence?
is funded by the Australian Government under the
Promoting Better Mental Health – Youth Mental Health Initiative
Using SSRI Antidepressants and Other Newer Antidepressants to Treat Depression in Young People: What are the issues and what is the evidence?
Why is there so much debate on this issue?
severe depression (not mild depression) when psychological therapy has not been effective, is not available or is refused
Concerns about using Selective Serotonin Reuptake
or if symptoms are severe (16). The guidelines state that
Inhibitors (SSRIs) in young people centre on two issues. First,
prescription must occur in the context of an ongoing
SSRIs might be less effective than first thought for treating
therapeutic relationship and management plan.
adolescent depression. Second, SSRIs might be associated
Guidelines also recommend close monitoring of symptom
with worrying side-effects. The latter concern first emerged
severity and adverse effects, including the onset or increase in
in light of evidence indicating an increase in suicidal ideas
suicidal thinking especially in the first 4 weeks of commencing
and behaviours among people aged 12-18 years who were
medication, and that there be a protocol in place for
prescribed SSRIs for the treatment of depressive illnesses
(1-4). This led to a ‘black box warning’ in the United States cautioning clinicians about using this class of medication for young people aged up to 24 years. In Australia, no
Are SSRIs and Newer Antidepressants
antidepressant (including any SSRIs) is currently approved by
effective for young people? What is
the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for the treatment
of major depression in people aged less than 18 years (5). As a result of the warnings and associated publicity, SSRI
Additional evidence is available since the publication of
prescription rates were observed to decline among young
the Australian guidelines in 2011. The results of a recently
people in many countries (6). However, an association
published Cochrane systematic review (15) show modest
has recently been drawn between these declining rates of
effects of antidepressants compared with placebo in
prescriptions and an increased suicide rate over the same
improving depression. The rates of remission while on an
period of time (6). One study has shown that there has been
antidepressant were 448 per 1000 compared to 380 per 1000
no increase in psychotherapy referrals to compensate for the
decreasing prescription rates (7), suggesting that there has
Despite the evidence supporting fluoxetine (and more recently
been a reduction in interventions generally for young people
escitalopram has received FDA approval), the Cochrane
with depression, rather than SSRI prescriptions specifically.
review showed the effects for these medications were similar
There continues to be strong debate on this topic,
to others included in the review2. The overall reduction in
with many clinical researchers arguing that SSRIs are
depression severity scores on the Children’s Depression Rating
essential for treating depression in this age group,
Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) was 5.63 lower for fluoxetine and 2.67
(8-12) while others claim the contrary (13-14). What further
for esciptalopram compared with those on placebo (from a
complicates this issue is the potential for bias to be introduced
possible range of 17-113) and unlikely to indicate significant
into this debate if only positive findings from SSRI drug trials
clinical change for the majority of young people. For fluoxetine,
are published in peer-reviewed journals, which was certainly
the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial
outcome (NNTB)3 of remission is 6. Rates of remission were not significantly improved on escitalopram compared with placebo. Across all SSRIs, the NNTB4 is 15.
What are evidence based guideline
recommendations for the use of medication? What kinds of patients were included in the
Current international clinical practice guidelines highlight
trials that were included in the review?
fluoxetine as the only SSRI with approval from the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (17,18). The FDA has also
It is important to note that the majority of clinical trials have
recently approved escitalopram. In Australia, guidelines
excluded young people with more severe forms of depression,
published in 2011 by beyondblue and the National Health
including those with comorbid mental health disorders
and Medical Research Council indicate that fluoxetine should
(including substance use disorders) and those with suicidal
only be considered for young people with moderate to
ideation or deliberate self-harm. The extent to which SSRIs
1. Rates of remission are based on the median remission rate in the placebo groups post intervention.
2. Newly available data for duloxetine on the www.clinicaltrials.gov website were not available at the time of the Cochrane update.
3. NNTB is based on an assumed control risk for a group of moderately depressed young people (based on the median remission rate in the placebo group).
4. Overall NNTB calculated in the same manner as point 3 above.
Using SSRI Antidepressants and Other Newer Antidepressants
are effective for treating depression in these patients, who
Overall, a stepped model approach is recommended
commonly present in specialist clinical settings, is unknown.
for the treatment of depression in young people (17,18),
There is very little research evidence to guide practice for this
whereby clinicians consider commencing treatment with a
psychological therapy, such as CBT or IPT. This is especially the case for young people with mild depression. In cases of
What is the evidence regarding the risks
moderate to severe depression, SSRI medication might be
of using SSRIs?
considered within the context of comprehensive management of the patient, which includes regular careful monitoring for
The results of several systematic reviews (4,10,15)
the emergence of suicidal ideation or behaviour (17).
demonstrate that there is an increased risk of both suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviour for young people treated with
Irrespective of the treatment chosen, it is essential that there
an SSRI compared with those receiving placebo. Across all
is close monitoring of the young person’s symptoms, and any
SSRIs, the risk of a suicide related outcome for those taking
side effects if medication is prescribed. This also helps to form
antidepressants was 58% higher (risk ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.02 to
the basis of ongoing collaborative discussions with the young
2.45), compared with those taking placebo. This equates to an person and their families and supporters where appropriate, increased risk in a group with a median baseline risk from
about further treatment options for those who do not respond
25 in 1000 to 40 in 1000 (15). For fluoxetine, the number
to initial treatment (including the use of increasingly complex
needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH)5
of suicidal ideation/behaviour is 32. Across all SSRIs, the NNTH6 is 66. No deaths have been reported that are
Keeping up with new findings?
There are a number of sources of up-to-date
What does all this mean about treating a
information about the effectiveness of interventions for
young person with depression?
treating depression. The Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health will continue to update information about
There is evidence that fluoxetine is modestly effective for
effective interventions for youth mental health disorders
reducing symptoms of depression in young people. Balanced
against these findings are the even greater risks of not
For more information, the beyondblue Clinical Practice
treating depression, be it pharmacological or psychological.
Guidelines: Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults
There is a clear imperative to engage young people who
are experiencing a depressive disorder in good clinical
care. Clinicians can consider a range of evidence-based interventions, including those that are relatively simple. For
Other useful sites include:
example in the recent ADAPT trial, which compared fluoxetine with fluoxetine plus cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), 21%
The Cochrane Library - Australian Access
of young people accepted into the trial responded to a
brief psychosocial intervention and subsequently had to be excluded from the study before randomisation (19). Trials such
The Centre for Evidence Based Mental Health
as ADAPT demonstrate that a high level of ‘standard care’,
which might or might not include medication, is sufficient for
The York Centre for Review and Dissemination
many young people, including those experiencing moderate
to severe depression (19-21). There is also evidence that psychological therapies, such as CBT and interpersonal
For more general information about principles and practice
therapy (IPT) can be effective for some young people,
of evidence based medicine go to: The Centre for Evidence
Based Medicine in Oxford www.cebm.net
5. NNTH is based on an assumed control risk for a group of young people with moderate severity of suicidal ideation/behavior (based on the median rate in the
6. Overall NNTH calculated in the same manner as point 5 above.
Using SSRI Antidepressants and Other Newer Antidepressants
* This evidence summary replaces the previous “Evidence Summary: Using SSRI Antidepressants to Treat Depression in Young People: What are the Issues and What is the Evidence?”. It contains updated content and trial data, and is current as of December 2012.
1. Hetrick, S. E., McKenzie, J. E., & Merry, S. N. (2010). The use of SSRIs
13. Moncrieff, J., & Kirsch, I. (2005). Efficacy of antidepressants in
in children and adolescents. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23,
adults. British Medical Journal, 331, 155-159.
14. Jureidini, J. N., Doecke, C. J., Mansfield, P. R., Haby, M. M.,
2. Goodyer, I. M., Wilkinson, P., Dubicka, B., & Kelvin, R. (2010). Forum:
Menkes, D. B., & Tonkin, A. L. (2004). Efficacy and safety of
The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depressed
antidepressants for children and adolescents. British Medical
children and adolescents: commentary on the meta-analysis of
Hetrick et al. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23(58-61).
15. Hetrick SE, McKenzie JE, Cox GR, Simmons MB, Merry SN. Newer
3. Hebebrand, J., March, J., & Herpertz-Dahlmann, B. (2010).
generation antidepressants for depressive disorders in children
Commentary on ;Forum: use of antidepressants in children and
and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012,
adolescents’. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23(62-67).
Issue 11. Art. No.: CD004851. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004851.
4. Hammad, T. A., Laugren, T., & Racoosin, J. (2006). Suicidality in
pediatric patients treated with antidepressant drugs. Archives of
16. McDermott, B., Baigent, M., Chanen, A., Fraser, L., Graetz, B.,
Hayman, N., et al. (2011). beyondblue Expert Working Committee
5. Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee. Use
(2010) Clinical practice guidelines: Depression in adolescents
of SSRI antidepressants in children and adolescents. Updated
and young adults. Melbourne: beyondblue: the national
statement 15 October 2004. http://www.tga.gov.au/adr/adrac_ssri.
17. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007).
6. Gibbons, R. D., Brown, C. H., Hur, K., Marcus, S. M., Bhaumik,
Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children
D. K., Erkens, J. A., et al. (2007). Early evidence on the effects of
and adolescents with depressive disorders. Journal of the
regulators’ suicidality warnings on SSRI prescriptions and suicide in
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1503–1526.
children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(9),
18. National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2005). Depression in
Children and Young People: Identification and management in
7. Libby, A. M., Brent, D. A., Morrato, E. H., Orton, H. D., Allen, R., &
primary, community and secondary care. Leicester, UK: The British
Valuck, R. J. (2007). Decline in Treatment of Pediatric Depression
After FDA Advisory on Risk of Suicidality With SSRIs. American
19. Goodyer, I., Dubicka, B., Wilkinson, P., Kelvin, R., Roberts, C., Byford,
Journal of Human Genetics, 164(6), 884-891.
S., et al. (2007). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and
8. Brent, D. A. (2004). Antidepressants and pediatric depression – the
routine specialist care with and without cognitive behavior therapy
risk of doing nothing. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(16),
in adolescents with major depression: randomized controlled trial.
British Journal of Psychiatry, 335(7611), 142 Epub.
9. Cheung, A. H., Emslie, G. J., & Mayes, T. (2005). Review of the
20. Clarke, G., Debar, L., Lynch, F., Powell, J., Gale, J., O’Connor, E.,
efficacy and safety of antidepressants in youth depression. Journal
et al. (2005). A randomized effectiveness trial of brief cognitive
of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(7), 735-754.
behavioral therapy for depressed adolescents receiving antidepressant medication. Journal of the American Academy of
10. Dubicka, B., Hadley, S., & Roberts, C. (2006). Suicidal behavior
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(9), 888-898.
in youths with depression treated with new-generation antidepressants: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry, 189, 393-398.
21. TADS Team. (2007). The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression
Study (TADS): Long-term effectiveness and safety outcomes.
11. Wagner, K. D. (2005). Pharmacotherapy for major depression in
Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(10), 1132-1144.
children and adolescents. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 29, 819-826.
22. Watanabe, N., Hunot, V., Omori, I. M., Churchill, R., & Furukawa,
T. A. (2007). Psychotherapy for depression among children and
12. Whittington, C. J., Kendall, T., Fonagy, P., Cottrell, D., Cotgrove, A.,
adolescents: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica,
& Boddington, E. (2004). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
in childhood depression: systematic review of published versus unpublished data. Lancet, 363(9418), 1341-1345.
(The National Youth Mental Health Foundation) is
Evidence Summaries are prepared by the Centre of
funded by the Australian Government Department of Health
Excellence in Youth Mental Health. The series aims to highlight for
and Ageing under the Promoting Better Mental Health – Youth
service providers the research evidence and best practices for the care of young people with mental health and substance abuse problems.
The content is based on the best available evidence that has been
For more details about headspace
Copyright 2013 Orygen Youth Health Research Centre
This work is copyrighted. Apart from any use permitted under the
Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced without prior written
permission from Orygen Youth Health Research Centre.
ISBN: 978-0-9872901-8-2 (Online): 978-0-9872901-9-9
Clinical consultants:Dr Christopher Davey
+61 3 9027 0100 f
+61 3 9027 0199
Using SSRI Antidepressants and Other Newer Antidepressants
Checklist of Lope-Okanda Reserve Introduction The Lope-Okanda Game Reserve, in central Gabon, is part of a tropical rainforest as species-diverse as the forests of southeast Asia and tropical South America (Reitsma 1988, Gentry 1988). In spiteof its great diversity and remarkably high level of endemism (Brenan 1978), the flora of Gabon remainsseverely under-collected (Floret 1976, Breteler
Giacomo Puccini Libreto de Luigi Illica y Giuseppe GiacosaEstreno: Roma, 14 enero 1900, Teatro CostanziAño 1800. Iglesia de Sant'Andrea della ValleCavaradossi se queda a solas, inmerso en sutrabajo. Angelotti, seguro de que ya no hay nadie,extinguida república, se ha fugado del Castillosale de la capilla. Es sorprendido por el pintor,de Sant'Angelo donde estaba prisionero bajoquien lo