Mais les résultats doivent être attendus longtemps et il n'y a généralement pas de temps amoxicilline prix L'autre cas, c'est que l'achat d'un ou d'un autre antibiotique dans une pharmacie classique nécessite des dépenses matérielles considérables et pas toutes les personnes ne peuvent acheter des produits pharmaceutiques aussi coûteux.
Microsoft word - medicinal plants research database.docx
MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH DATABASE
Sambiloto (Anclographis paniculata) and brotowali herb (Tinospora
crispa) has been known as a medicinal herb for anti-diabetic. This
traditional antidiabetic, Indonesia Vol 4 No.1
research was conducted to evaluate combination anti-diabetic effect of
sambiloto and brotowali herb in treated alloxane induced diabetic mice. antidiabetic
Anti-diabetic of the extract of these medicinal plant had been tested and
showed the activity to reduce blood glucose level of alloxane induced
diabetic mice. Completely randomized block design was used with 25 rats, which were devided into 5 groups of models. The test activity of combination of these medicinal plant performed with five models: group I as control, negative treatment, group II received 0.18 mg glibenclamide, group III received combination of extract sambiloto and brotowali herb(750 mg:250 mg), group IV received 500 mg: 500 mg, and group V received 250 mg:750 mg. All groups were observed for 8 clays, evaluation of the combination were evaluated by blood glucose analysis with GOD period method. The result showed that ratio of sambiloto and brotowali 750 mg : 250 mg; 500 mg : 500 mg and 250:750 decreased glucose level 18%, 17% and 36%, respectively. As conclusion combination of sambiloto and brotowali herb 250 mg : 750 mg was the most effective anti-diabetic compare with other group treatments.
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is one of the major medicinal herbs
Echinacea purpurea (L.) Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat
that have commercial interest worldwide. It has antiviral, antibacterial
and imtnunostimulatory activities. Medicinal Plant and Traditional
Medicine Research and Development Centre has been cultivating E.
purpurea since 2002. There aremorphological variation of E. purpurea
grow at Tawanggmangu. The objective of this research was to
characterize and to determine E. purpurea accessions based on
morphological characters. Echinacea purpurea was cultivated in the collection field at 1200 m asl for five months. The observation were done base on morphological characters and continued with the selection that has morphological differences. The results showed that there were ten accessions of E. purpurea which have specifics morphological characters especially in their inflorescence.
Malaria still becomes a global health problem due to its high morbidity
and mortality, mostly in tropic countries. Artemisinin, the active
compound produced by Artemisia annua L., is a promising drug to treat
malaria, especially which caused by the resistant of Plaslnodiurn falciparUm against chloroquin. There are obstacles in production of arternisinin supplies because its synthesis needed a large manu facturing cost and complicated to accomplish. The artemisinin content in plants is very low and varies, so that in vitro culture technique is expected to be an alternate production of artemisinin. Nutrients in growth medium could influence the content of active compounds produced. One of the nutrients is gibberelin acid (GA3). It could influence the synthesis of sesquiterpene lactone, including artemisinin. Therefore the in vitro culture experiment of A. annua with adding GA3 is needed to develop in order to increase the content of artemisinin. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was applied to this study with GA3 concentration used were 0; 0,01; 0,1 and 1 mg/L. Sterilized explants from A. annua were grown on liquid Murshige Skoog (MS) medium for 30 days, then subcultured on agar MS which contained GA3 with various concentration. The result showed that the concentrations of GA3 applied on this study (ie: 0,01; 0,1 and 1 mg/L) could decreased wet and dry weight of A. annua shoot, although the artemisinin content was not influenced significantly by the adding of GA3.
Comparative study of Primojel° 2%, 5% & 8% to physical characteristics
of tablet from dried extract of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack leaves has
been investigated. Primojel" is one of the tablet excipients that acts as
desintegrant. Dried extract Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack leaves was
formulated with Primojel°, lactose, PVP K 30, magnesium stearate and
silika koloidal ; then pressed using direct compression method. Each
formulae contained different concentration of Primojel° i.e: Fl = 2%, F2 = 5% & F3 = 8%. The results for all formulae conformed with the spesification. Statistical analysis (ANOVA & LSD on confidence level 5%) tend to showed significant differences on parameter disinte¬gration, friability, hardness, and weight uniformity of tablet, but no significant differences on param¬eter dimension. Based on tablet desintegration, F3 could performed the best results.
Compound existence at one particular plant extract ingredient that has
ability to inhibitory a-glucosi¬dase enzyme, give a chance to develop a
natural medicine in the effort therapy of diabetic. This aim of study to
see effectivity of n-buthanol isolate from Acorus calamus L. on inhibitory
cc -glucosiclase enzyme. Extraction done with masceration method use methanol. The gummy methanol extract followed by partition using n-heksan, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The n-buthanol extract isolate using column chromatography method with stationer phase is resin diaion hp 20 and eluent ethanol: water in various concentration, isolation result is got 5 fraction. In each fraction was assayed for inhibitory activity on (x-glucosidase enzyme. The potential inhibition effect was got in 5"' fraction and from purified process using column chromatography method with stationer phase is silica gel and eluent dichloromethane: methanol 95:5 was got ACB as active compound with IC50 17.89 pg/ml. This result shows that plants Acorus calamus L. has a potency to develop upon which diabetes therapy.
In the efforts to develop male contraceptive method, research using
ethanol extract, Justicia
Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat
traditional rescources from Indonesia has been kept going. According to gendarusa,
ethnomedicinal study, Justicia gendarussa Burm. F. has been used by
Papuan male for contraceptive purposes. From chemotaxonomy and
pharmacognocy study, it was found that this plant has flavonoid
components and, phamacollogically, has spermato¬zoa hialuronidase
inhibitor activity. In this study, 70% ethanol extract of alkaloid-free
J.gendarussa leaves was used. Two kinds of dosage were used, 284.5
mg/capsule and 213 mg/capsule, given one capsule orally after meal a
day for 108 days. In phase 1, 36 volunteers were recruited, with the main requirement to be fertile-normospermia male. The single blind method was used, and it aimed to find the safe dosage for human being. Complete blood test and sperm test were conducted and showed that subjects are in healthy conditions and sperms are normal. The hialuronic binding assay (HBA) examination shows that there is a decrease in the percentage of hialuronat bond, compared to the placebo. Therefore, it is concluded that phase 1 shows that the subjects are healthy and having normal sperm condition. However, there is a decrease in the activity of hialuronidase spermatozoa enzym which might prevent sperm penetration and fertilization in subjects taken the 284.5 mg cap¬sules .
Afifah B. Sutjiatmo, Sri Extract of leaves of Strobilanthes crispa L.has been used traditionally to
Strobilanthes crispa L., Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat
treat diabetes mellitus and gallstones. The objective of this study is to
test hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of leafs of S. crispa in rats
using glucose tolerance test method. Aqueous extract of leafs of S.
crispa L. at doses 150 mg/kg BW and 300 mg/kg BW were orally
administered in male Wistar rat. Blood glucose rate was analysed every
60 minutes over 3 hours. As conclusion, aqueous extract of leafs of S.
crispa at dose 150 mg/kg BW gave similar effect with chlorpropamid at dose 9 mg/kg bw.
Trigonella Foenum-graecum (TFG) is one of medicinal plants containing
some steroidal sapogenins such as diosgenin, yamogenin, gitogenin,
graecum L., MTT, MCF- Indonesia Vol 4 No.1
tigogenin and trigoneoside, also alkaloid trigonellin, which has many
activity as antidiabetic, estrogenic and also as anti cancer. The aim of
this research is to investigate the correlation of its cytotoxic activity on
breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, with its total steroid level. Samples was prepared by fractioned the methanolic TFG with ethylacetate, n-hexane and n-buthanol. Each fraction then was separated by chromatographic colounln. C},rotoxic activity was investigated using MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Dip henyltetrazolium) assay on MCF-7 cell, while total steroid level was done using spectrophotornetric methods. Results showed that there was no correlation between cytotoxic activity and total steroid level. Thus we can conclude that the cytotoxic effect from TFG is not caused by its steroid compounds.
Clove (Eugenia arolnatic. OK ) is a tropical plant that come from Maluku. volatile oil, clove leaf
Clove oil contain volatile oil that usually obtained from flowers by the
distillation method, but there are some literatures mentioned clove
leaves also contain volatile oil. Based on this, research was conducted to
determine the content of eugenol in volatile oil of clove leaf and flower.
Determination of eugenol by TLC¬Densitometry showed that, eugenol content in clove volatile oil from flower 82.49% and from leaf 79.03%.
In research development herbal medicine of selected plant for
antidiabetic, ethyl acetate extract of Acorus cala:nus L. plays on
biological role in differentiation of preadiposites and posses powerful in calamus L
diabetes (type 2) and have known active compounds are 3-(3, 22 a-
trihiroksiolean-30-metoksikarbonil - 12 ene-22-O-a-L-rhamnoside and
/3-sitosterol-3-O-(3-D-glukosidase. The proposed of this search to isolate active compound which as inhibitor a-glucosidase activity from ethyl acetate extract and modify of active compounds or (SAR=Structure Activity Relationship). The results of fraction of ethyl acetate extracts were four semi-polar fractions which similar TLC spot (4, 5, 6 and 7 fractions) were active inhibition of a-glucosidase activity which IC50 22.86; 13.54; 13.34 and 18.92 ug/mL respectively and three polar fractions (20, 21 and 22 fractions) were active inhibition of a-glucosidase activity which IC50 13.55; 3.08 and 6.85 ug/mL respectively. SAR studied showed (3-sitosterol-3-O-(3-D¬glukosidase with suspicion active compound have similarity with acarbose antidiabetic drug. This research should be continued to establish of active compounds for further on antidiabetic drug design.
Meru betiri national park have imfortant role for the comunites around
it. Most of the local communities around this park have ability to utilize
communities around of Indonesia Vol 4 No.2
the plants as medicine that they got from their origin. It was carried out
research to examine the use of medicinal plants by pepople around of
menu betiri nasional park. methods of researech conducted by fieled
observation and semi-structured inter views. the results showed that
there are 157 species of plants used as traditonal medicies, and 68 specieis of panlts used as traditional medicines, and 68 types of disease are treatedusing traditional medicine by societies around of park. the medi cinal plants may be used singel or made potions to treat a specific di saese. the table use value revealed that curcuma domectita val. has a highest percentage (60%), then it is followed by curcuma xanthorziza L. (51%), piper bettle L. leaf (48%), and zingibier officinale roscoe (45%). based on informant concencus factor and use value, there are 11 species of plants to cure 19 types of disease which are potential to have deeply bioactivity assay.
Julia Rahmawati, Clara The isolation of flavonoid compound from ethyl acetate fraction of
beringi leaves (ficus beyamina L.) have been done. The extraction was
prepared with maseration method using methanol solvent, and then
followed by fractination with liquid-liquid extraction method using
water, ethyl acetate,and nhexane. separation method was conducted by spectrophotometry, column chromatography using eluent gradation eith belend of n-hexane infrared and ethylacetate , and thencontinued by preparative thin layer
chromatography until the showed one sport which indicated that isolate was pure. the characterization of isolate was investigated wint ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and infrared spectrophotometry. ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry resulted maximum wavelength 272,80 nm (band II) and 343,20 (band I)that included of flavon compounnd,and infrared spectrophotometry ws proved bond of O_H (3405,67cm-1), C_H (2919,7 cm-1),C=O (1639,7 cm-1), C=C (1461,78 cm-1), C-O (1103,08 cm-1).
Kahayan Hilir people is being used Flagelaria indica L. (Flagellariaceae)
BUAH Flagellaria indica
L. Agus Haryono, Suatma fruit as traditional fertility control. Interestingly it fruit used as
antifertility agent in male and female. Although the plant is a well known spermatogenesis,
antifertility plant, till today poorly knows of male antifertility activity of
it fruit. The present study was to evaluate the effect of antifertility in
ethanol extract of Flagelar-ia indica L. fruit in Albino mice. The Study was
divided into four groups with six animals for each groups. The first group
(I) received sterile aquabidest serve as control. The second, third and forth groups (II, III and IV) of animals were gavage the ethanol extract of Flagelaria indica L. fruit on 0,021 mgikg body wt., 0,042 rng/kg body wt., and 0,084 mg/kg body wt respectively for a period of three weeks. At 21"' days the animals were sacrificed by dislocation. Sperm collected from vas deferens, motility, number of normal and abnormal sperm were count. Testis was isolated, washed in buffered saline and fixed in Bouin's solution. Testis sections (5 - 6}im) were routinely processed by standard histological techniques, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and examined by light microscope (Nikon Eclipse E400) to assess structure changes among control and experimental animals. The result shows testes of mice group treated with the extract close 0.021 mg/kg bw cause seminiferous tubules wall becomes thinner, the lumen becomes wider, and number of sperm in the lumen decline. At doses of 0.042 mg/ kg bw and 0.084 mg/kg semiferus tubule wall disorganize, but interstitial cell structure normal. Conclusion: ethanol extract of Flagelaria indica L. fruit causes a decrease in sperm quality and disorganization of the seminiferous tubule, thereby disrupting spermatogenesis.
Lantana Sp. is a sort of medically plant. This plant produce triterpenoid
compounds, consist of: oleanolic acid, lantic acid, and camarinic acid
that have antibacterial characteristic. The effective concentration of
Lantana Sp. leaf extract that inhibite Staphylococcus aureus growth is
not yet known. This research was carried out to know: 10 the effect of
Lantana camara var. nivea leaf extract and I Lantana sellowiana leaf
extract in several concentration on the growth inhibition of S. aureus in vitro; 2) the most effective concentration of Lantana carnara var. nivea leaf extract in the growth inhibition of S. aureus in vitro; 3) the most effective concentration of Lantana sellowiana in the growth inhibi¬tion of S. aureus in vitro. The leaf extraction using methanol as the solvent. The solution were delete in several concentration: 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% with methanol. Each extract were added to the S. aureus culturein Nutrient Agar Plate medium with diffusion agar method and incubated in 37"C, during 1x24 hours. The diameter of growth inhibition zone of S. aureus were measured. The research results shows that: 1) the leaf extract of Lantana camara var. nivea and. Lantana sellowiana can inhihite the growth of S. aureus in vitro; 2) the most effective concentration of Lantana cainara var. nivea leaf extract in the growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus is 50%; 3) the most effective concentration of Lantana sellowiana leaf extract in the growth inhibition if Staphy¬lococcus aureus is 40%.
Vitex trifolia L. (legundi) leaves is utilized traditionally as pain relief. This Keywords: Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat
research ain-1 to study the anti inflamation effect of Vitex trifolki L.
leaves infuse. Anti inflamation methode is conducted by slowed down
the edema volume on sole of male mice food induced by 0,05 mL
intraplantar lambda carageenan 1% injection. Infuse of Vitex trifolia
leaves 10% gave 1 hour before carageenan adminis-tration.
Plestismometer used to measure edema ocured on the sole of male mice food. T-test used for data analyzation.
Mengkudu has been widely used as immunomodulator. Its unpleasant
taste and smell characteristics has urged a research to formulate
effervescent tablet of Mengkudu extract. One important compo¬nent in effervescent tablet,
formulating effervescent tablet is the acid source. Aim of this research
was to optimize the proportion of citric acid and tartaric acid in
effervescent tablet formulation by using Simplex Lattice Design method.
Extract was yielded by maceration technique with ethanol 40%. Effervescent tablets were produced in five (5) different formulas, by fusion method at 50 °C for lh. Granule masses were evaluated for flowing time, tapping index, density and compactibility characteristics, while the tablets were tested for the weight uniformity, hardness, friability and disintegration time. Data were analyzed with one way ANOVA, Scheffe method and Kruskall-Walliss with significance level 95%. The TLC profiles of extract, granules and tablets yielded were evaluated qualitatively. The tablet acceptability was tested among 30 respondents. The result showed that different composition of citric acid and tartaric acid in formulation has not only influenced the physical characteristics of granules and tablets but also influenced the tablet acceptability. Increased portion of citric acid showed longer time of tablet disintegration, while increased portion of tartaric acid improved the tablet weight uniformity, reduced the hardness, and increase the friability. Formula 2 (citric acid 40%: tartaric acid 60%) was chosen by 90% respondents as the best formula. The calculation revealed formula having composi¬tion of citric acid 37 and tartaric acid 63 as the optimum formula.
Obesity prevalence increase in the various Asian and Pacific Country,
Europe, United States, AlIstr~t¬lian and also in developing Country.
Change of preadipocyte into mature adipocyte play a part in obesity
pathogenesis. Black tea has component of antioksidan which plays an
important role control¬ling of cells proliferation. Theaflavin in black tea
may he able to inhibits change of preadipocyte into mature adipocyte,
therefore the prevalence of obesity as inducer various metabolic disease
can be prevented early. The goal of this study is to prove the effect of
black tea (Ca- rnellia sinensis) steepings essence to prevention of the raising of expression of IGF-1 in wistar mouse with high fat diet. The research was conducted by in vivo using rats Wistar strain. Mouse was divided into positive control group which is given high fat diet without black tea steepings essence and treatments group by high fat diet with black tea steepings essence dose 0,015g, 0,030g and 0,045g/day during 90 day. Expres¬sion of IGF-1 is measured by semiquantitative by counting colour intensity at Col-ell Photo of Paint 11. Intensity expression colour score of IGF-1 result of imunohistochemistry are analyzed statistically ,xith one way Anova analysis and analysis of regression with level of significancy p = 0,05. Based on the result of
analysis at one way Anova (p<0,05) black tea steepings essence with various dose (O,OlSg, 0,030g and 0,045g/day) can prevent the raising of expression of IGF-1 significantly (p= 0,000) compared to positive control group. Result of this study prove that black tea (Camelliasinensis) steepings essence can prevent the raising of expression of IGF-1 in Wistar rats with high fat diet
Natural healthy life trend in urban population today is to use
traditionally plant in maintain health. Legundi (Vitex trifolia) and Pulutan Vitex trifolia,
(Urena loNata L.) pulvers were medicinal use as a jamu material. The
aim of this research to proof antibacterial of both pulv and determine
the right concentracy of antibacterial again E. coli (negative gram) and S.
aureus are. Bacterial essay method of material Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) used in this research and concentration used of 3% and 6%. The result showed that 3% and 6% concentration did not effect as antimicrobial on even gram positive or gram negative bacterias.
The Effect of Black Rice Bran Extract (Oryza saliva L.) Recovering on
Aspirin Induced Wound of Gastric mucosa Mice. Objective: Black rice is
black rice bran extract, Indonesia Vol 4 No.2
one of the primary food of Indonesian people.The bran of black rice is by gastric
product of milling the black rice, contains e.g anthocyanin, mangan and
ferum which has protection effect on the gastric mucosa damage. The
purpose of this research is to investi¬gate the effect of the black rice
bran extract to recover the stomach wound of the mice which is induced by aspirin and how the doses - effect relationships. Method: The research used laboratory experimental method post test control group design. The sample consisted of 24 Swiss Webster male mice of aged 6-8 weeks, weight ± 20g. Th~e samples were divided into 6 groups. These groups were administered orally : I. Aquadest 0,4 ml; It. Aspirin 1,7 mg and 0,4 ml aquaclest; III. Aspirin 1,7 mg and black rice bran extract 7 mg /kg body weight; IV 1,7 mg aspirin and black rice bran extract 14 mg /kg body weight; V. 1,7 nzg aspirin and 28 mg /kg body weighto of black rice bran extract; V. 1,7 mg aspirin and antacid 0,02 ml; all groups for 3 days. Research parameter is the damage level of gastric mucosaL The data obtained were statistically evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis and further tested by Mann-Whitney test. Results: The research had been shown that the black rice bran extracts at doses of 7 mg, 14 mg, and 28 mg /kg body weight; significantly recovered the wound of stomach mice induced by aspirin (p<0,05). Among the three groups of black rice bran extract doses were not significantly different (p>0,05). Conclusion: The black rice bran extract (Oryza sativa L.) can recover significantly the wound of gastric mucosa Mice induced by aspirin. The increasing dose of black rice bran extract cannot increase the effect of recovering
cubeba Harto Widodo, Litsea cuheba (Lour) is one of aromatic plant famous in Indonesian is
krangean or ki lemo. Krangean has been used as aniconvulsant, cough
medicine, antispasmodic, ans spices. Chemical element of essential oil
component from leaf, cortex, or seed have observed an identified.
Krangean oil is used in food indtusties, cosmetic and cigarette. The main
component of essential oil of krangean is usefull for raw material to
product ionone, methyl-ionone, vitamin A and E. Utilization of plant ekstract is still limited in the societies. This paper is clicuse a breavely agronomy aspec traditional utilization bio actifity in scientifically proved and possibility of krangean development, so it can get more economic value at the society.
Increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) has become a major threat to the health sector worldwide due
to their virulence, limited therapeutic options and their distribution in
both hospital and community settings. Discovery and development of
Isa, Shuhaimi Mustafa, new anti-MRSA agents as alternatives to the very few antibiotics left in
the armamentarium are thus, urgently required. Recently, an efflux
Dayang Fredalina Basri mechanism in MRSA has been identified as one of the main contributors
of resistance towards various structurally unrelated antibiotics. The potential of reserpine (a phytoalkaloid) as efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) against various microbes remains limited as the concentration needed for inhibition is toxic to humans. This study therefore aimed to evaluate 13 alkaloid compounds as potential inhibitory against and/or potential EPIs against a panel of three MRSA isolates which not only differ in their susceptibility to vancomycin (amongst the last drugs available to treat serious MRSA infection), but also exhibit active efflux activity. Results indicated berberine’s moderate inhibitory activity against two MRSA isolates scoring a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 125 µg/ml. Notable efflux inhibitory activity (ranging from two to eighrfold Ethidium Bromide MIC reduction) meanwhile was detected from quinine, piperine and harmaline using reserpine as the positive control. Findings from this study support the opinion that a vast number of potential phytocompounds with pharmacological potential await discovery. Therapeutic application of these compounds, however, warrants further investigation to ascertain their pharmacodynamics and safety aspects.
MULTI-STEP INFRARED Hooi-Poay Tan a,b, Sui
Phyllagathis Praetermissa collected from Pasoh Forest Reserve (Negeri Phyllagathis
MACRO-FINGERPRINTING Kiong Ling b, Cheng-
Sembilan). Ampang Forest Reserve (Selangor) and Bukit Lagong praetermissa Fourier
(Selangor) in Peninsular Malaysia could be differentiated based on their transform infrared
chemical constituents by using multi-step infrared macro-fingerprinting. spectroscopy (FT-IR)
This method utilized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, second Second derivatives
derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation infrared spectroscopy
infrared spectroscopy, Conventional infrared spectra showed limited Two-dimensional differences but the second derivative infrared spectra could amplify the infrared correlation differences of P. praetermissa collected from different localities. P. spectroscopy (2D-IR) praetermissa from the three localities were grouped by using Exploratory data exploratory data analysis (EDA). In addition, the visual 2D-1R spectra analysis (EDA) applied with thermal perturbation enhanced the discriminant analysis of P. praetermissa more effectively. Consequently, macroscopic IR fingerprinting has been found a useful and nondestructive approach for herbal identification and quality control of traditional medicinal herbs.
DRYING OF BETEL LEAVES K.Y. Pin,¹ T.G. Chuah,²’³ This work studied the effects of drying temperature on the quality and Piper betle
L.): QUALITY A. Abdull Rashih,¹ C.L.
drying kinetics of betel leaves (Piper betle L.). As the drying process kinetics;
Law,⁴ M.A. Rasadah¹ & applies heat on the product, this might lead to the degradation and Hydroxychavicol; T.S.Y. Choong
decomposition of valuable phytochemicals within the herbs. In this Eugenol; Thin-layer study, the effect of drying temperature on the quality of dried leaves, models
was studied by analyzing the change of major phytochemicals found in the leaves which are hydroxychavicol and eugenol. The results indicate that the content of major compounds increased with temperature from 40 to 70oC but underwent decomposition when the leaves dried at 80oC. Besides that, the drying kinetics for different drying temperatures also studied. The kinetics results show that the increase of drying temperature shortened the total drying time. Five thin layer models were selected in describing the drying process of betel leaves. The logarithmic model was found to be the most suitable one.
This study is part of a screening programme aimed at searching for Polyporales, plant
bioactive metabolites from basidiomycete fungi belonging to the order pathogenic
Polyporales. These fungi are commonly associated with root diseases in macrofungi, mycelial
forest tree species and agricultural crops. Submerged cultivation of cultures, natural
fungal mycelia in liquid media could reduce the time spent in obtaining products, antimicrobial
antimicrobial metabolites. A total of 112 butanol extracts prepared from activity
broth cultures of fungi belonging to several species of the genera
Phellinus, Ganoderma, Rigidoporus, Tinctoporellus
, and some unidentified polypore species, were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
and Rhodotorulla glutinis
. Differences in antimicrobial activities observed in the different fungal genera suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogenously distributed among basidiomycetes. In the primary antimicrobial assay, a total of 26 (23.2%) extracts exhibited strong antimicrobial activity with percentage of inhibition concentration (%IC) ≥ 90% against one or more of the test micro-organisms. Antibacterial activity was more pronounced than antifungal activity. Ten extracts that exhibited strong antibacterial activity showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≤ 0.125 µg µl-1 against B. subtilis in a secondary assay.
The influence of solvents with different polarities on the antioxidant and Medicinal plant,
anti-inflammatory properties of betel leaf extracts (Piper betle
ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS Rashih¹, MP Mazura¹, J investigated. The solvents used were water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and
hexane. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to
BETLE) FROM SOLVENTS Vimala¹´ & MA
determine the chemical profiles and concentrations of the active
compounds, namely, hydroxychavicol (HC) and eugenol (EU). The
antioxidant potential of the extracts was evaluated using two in vitro assays – xanthine/xanthine oxidase superoxide scavenging assay (SOD) assay) and 1, 2-dipheny 1-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay (DPPH assay). The anti-inflammatory assays used were hyaluronidase (HYA), xanthine oxidase (XOD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays. The HPLC results revealed that HC and EU were detected in all types of extracts and the concentrations were highest in the water extract. The highest extraction yield was obtained using water. All the extracts were highly active in both antioxidant assays with water extract showing the strongest inhibition. The extracts also exhibited significant inhibition in XOD and LOX assays. The results indicated that the bioactivity of the extracts was related to HC and EU.
Hydro distillation of the leaves of Xylopia malayana
collected from Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan,
MAILINA J, MUHAJIR H Malaysia yielded 1.39 , 1.25 and 0.56% (v/w) of pale yellow and
yellowish oils respectively. The chemical compositions of the oils were
analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). A total of 29 (94.4% of the total oil), 22 (78.8%)and 34 (80.7%) compounds were indentified from essential oils of the leaves of X. malayana, X. fusca and X. elliptica respectively. Analyses of the oils revealed that the main components from X. malayana
leaf oil were β-pinene (42.0%), α-pinene (15.2%), elemol (11.6%) and bicyclogermacrene (12.0%), β-elemene (11.5%) and β-pinene (10.1%).Major compounds of X. elliptica leaf oil were bicyclogermacrene (11.5%), sabinene (10.6%), α-pinene (9.0%), elemol (8.1%) and β-pinene(5.4%).
Effects of Garlic Extract on Sarawanee Tevit
The objective is to study the effects of garlic extract on serum insulin, Garlic extract, insulin , Master Thesis of
serum lipid profiles and lipoprotein including cardiac functions, coronary lipids, lipoprotein,
artery structures, and protein in urine in induced diabetic rats by a single cardiac function,
intraperitoneal injection with the dose of 70 mg/kg. BW. streptozotocin proteinuria, diabetes
(STZ-rats). Garlictreated STZ –rats (STZ-G) and tolbutamide-treated STZ-
rats (STZ-T) were received daily oral feeding of 100 mg/kg. BW. garlic
extract and 0.25 g/kg.BW. tolbutamide, respectively. Hypoglycemic
activity and insulin effect were compared between these two groups. The results showed that at all three monitored time points, 8, 6 and 20 weeks following streptozotocin injection, hypoglycemic activity of garlic extract was 74.22, 96.23 and 93.27 percent of activity of tolbutamide, respectively. Concomitantly, the levels of serum insulin were increased up to 37.03, 42.16 and 62.66 percent of tolbutamide effect. Besides, the levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in STZ-G rats were lower, whereas the levels of serum HDL were higher than those of STZ-rats. Moreover, garlic has been shown to attenuate the abnormalities of cardiac functions. Systemic blood pressure was significantly decreased, while heart rate, aortic flow rate and coronary flow rate were greater than those of STZ-rats. Left ventricular isotonic contraction values of STZ-rats were higher than those of STZ-rats at 16 and 20 weeks following streptozotocin injection. However garlic extract could not significantly reduced proteinuria at all three monitored time points. Examination of vascular morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopes demonstrated that the inner surface of coronary artery and arteriole of STZG rats were smoother than those of STZ-rats. Moreover, the thickness of arterial wall and capillary basement membrane of STZ-G rats were thinner than those of STZ-rats. The results of this study implied that garlic could be a useful agent for preventing or delaying the diabetic cardiovascular complications
The objective of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic activity
of Orthosiphon stamineus
Benth. (Thai name: Yah nuat maoh) water
extract. The chemical compound screening showed phenolic compounds .Benth., insulin,
and flavonoids, which were found 13.07±7.5 mg/g and 1.73±0.14 μg/g,
respectively. In oral glucose tolerance, the extract at 0.2 and 0.5 g/kg
showed a little hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. The extract at 1.0
g/kg was the most effective and response was closed to the result of glibenclamide. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, the extract at 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg significantly reduce plasma glucose. After repeated daily oral administration of the extract or glibenclamide for 14 days, glibenclamide significantly decreased plasma glucose in diabetic rats at day 8 but not the extract. However, after 14 days, both the extract and glibenclamide significantly reduced the plasma glucose. The blood chemical values were not significantly different from control, except aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and high-density lipolipid (HDL). Histopathological findings showed no evidence of lesions related to the extract toxicity. The extract (100 μg/ml) in the presence of high glucose stimulated insulin release about 11 times over the baseline from perfused rat pancrease. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract exerted the hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and stimulated insulin release in the presence of high glucose. Therefore, the extract should be useful in the treatment of diabetics
Peungvicha Penchom, The fresh leaves and alcoholic extract from leaves of Alternanthera
Suvitayavat Wisuda , ficoides
R.Br. ex R.&S.var. bettzickiana were tested for the hypoglycemic Alternanthera ficoides
var. Wongkrajang, Y.
effect using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in comparison with
Ruangsomboon, O and tolbutamide in normal rats. The plasma glucose levels in rats given the
Temsiririrkkul Rungravi alcoholic extracts at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg body weight were
significantly lower than those of control group (P>0.05), but fresh leaves at the same doses did not show this effect. At 2.5 hours after feeding, the alcoholic extract at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight could lower the plasma glucose level about half of the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight,i.e.,22.9% and 46% lower than those of the control value, respectively
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Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry Production by T-cells in Intravenous Liposomal Prednisolone Downregulates In Situ TNF- Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Jens Schmidt, Josbert M. Metselaar and Ralf Gold can be found at: Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry Additional services and information for Volume 51(9): 1241–1244, 2003 The Journa