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Health Services. Much of the concern stems
“To vaccinate the whole country in 10 days,
from the health risks of the vaccine itself,
we’d need two to three million workers.”
which caused one to two deaths and 14 to 52
Only a few states have come close to that
life-threatening complications for every mil-
level of preparedness. Nebraska, which had
lion doses when it was last used in the 1960s.

one of the highest per-capita smallpox vacci-
The vaccine’s fatality risk, however, is one
nation rates as of mid-March, benefited from
hundredth the average death rate from mo-
the zeal of Richard A. Raymond, the state’s

**Smallpox is not the only bioterror**
tor vehicle accidents in the U.S. and one
chief medical officer, who personally lobbied

**agent that Iraq is believed to**
200,000th the mortality rate from smallpox,
administrators at dozens of hospitals. “Gov-

**possess. Under pressure from the**

United Nations, Iraqi officials
which would be likely to kill 30 percent of the
ernment is all about priorities, and this was

**admitted in 1995 that their**
a priority for us,” Raymond says. “An attack

**laboratories had churned out **
U.S. intelligence officials suspect that both
may start in a big city, but because Americans

**these bioweapons:**
Iraq and North Korea possess stocks of small-
are so mobile, the entire country is at risk.”
■

**Botulinum toxin: nerve agent**
pox. The big uncertainty is whether terrorists

**produced by the bacteria that**
could spread the disease effectively—spraying
for terrorism preparedness at the Centers for

**cause botulism**
the live virus over a wide area is technically
Disease Control and Prevention, notes that
■

**Anthrax: bacteria that lie**
difficult, and a smallpox martyr could not in-
vaccinations are not the only defense against

**dormant in spores; if inhaled, the**
fect others until he or she was quite ill. Small-
smallpox. New York City, for instance, has

**bacteria multiply rapidly in the**

body, causing internal bleeding
pox experts note, though, that the public
an excellent disease surveillance program, in-

**and respiratory failure**
would demand mass vaccinations even if only
creasing the chances that epidemiologists
one case appeared in the U.S. and that health
would be able to identify and contain a small-
■

**Aflatoxin: chemical produced by**
**fungi that grow on peanuts and**
care workers might be unwilling to perform
pox outbreak. “Overall, New York gets a

**corn; causes liver cancer**
that task if they had not been previously vac-
passing grade,” Henderson says. “But they
■

**Perfringens toxin: compound**
cinated themselves. Says William J. Bicknell of
should have a lot more people vaccinated.

**released by the bacteria that**
the Boston University School of Public Health:
They’re doing it, but not as fast as we’d like.”

**cause gas gangrene**
**MATH A Digital Slice of Pi**
THE NEW WAY TO DO PURE MATH: EXPERIMENTALLY

**BY W. WAYT GIBBS**
“O

**ne of the greatest ironies **of the in- entific Computing Center in

ceived and born in the field of pure mathe-
matics, through the genius of giants such as
recently this marvelous technology had only
a minor impact within the field that gave it
mathematicians. Euclid discovered the first
birth.” So begins

*Experimentation in Math-*
integer relation scheme—a way to work out

*ematics, *a book by Jonathan M. Borwein and
the greatest common divisor of any two in-
David H. Bailey due out in September that
documents how all that has begun to change.

Computers, once looked on by mathematical
W. Forcade at last found a method to detect
the form ±1 ±

*x *±

*x*2 ±

*x*3 ± . . . ±
researchers with disdain as mere calculators,
relations among an arbitrarily large set of

*xn *= 0, up to

*n *= 18) have yet to be
have gained enough power to enable an en-
numbers. Building on that work, in 1995 Bai-
tirely new way to make fundamental discov-
ley’s group turned its computers loose on
eries: by running experiments and observing
some of the fundamental constants of math,
To the researchers’ great surprise, after
emerged in 1996. Bailey, who is chief tech-
months of calculations the machines came up
COURTESY OF JONATHAN M. BORWEIN AND PETER BORWEIN
nologist at the National Energy Research Sci-
with novel formulas for these and other nat-
COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

ural constants. And the new formulas made
of pi means that the infinite stream of digits
it possible to calculate any digit of pi or log
that follow 3.14159. . . must be truly ran-
2 without having to know any of the preced-
dom, in the sense that the digit 1 is there ex-
ing digits, a feat assumed for millennia to be
actly one tenth of the time, 22 appears one
hundredth of the time, and so on. No partic-

**CRUNCHING**
ular string of digits should be overrepresent-
such an algorithm. A Japanese team used it to
ed, whether pi is expressed in decimal, bina-

**Mathematical experiments require**
check very rapidly a much slower supercom-

**software that can manipulate**
puter calculation of the first 1.2 trillion digits
Empirically that seems true, not only for

**numbers thousands of digits long.**
pi but for almost all transcendental numbers.

**David H. Bailey has written a**
“Yet we have had no ability to prove that even

**program that can do math with**
a single natural constant is normal,” laments

**arbitrary precision. That and the**
**PSLQ algorithm that uncovered a**
tease out the quadrillionth digit of pi. But
Borwein, who directs the Center for Experi-

**new formula for pi are available at**
mathematicians, stunned by the discovery,
mental and Constructive Mathematics at Si-

**www.nersc.gov/~dhbailey/mpdist/**
began looking hard at what else experimen-
mon Fraser University in British Columbia.

“It now appears that this formula for pi

**A volunteer effort is under way to**
**verify the famous Riemann**
**Hypothesis by using distributed**
empiricists have advanced on a deeper ques-
key that unlocks that door,” Bailey says. He

**computer software to search for**
tion about pi: whether or not it is normal. The

**the zeros of the Riemann zeta**
constant is clearly normal in the convention-
have shown that the algorithm links the nor-

**function. (German mathematician**
al sense of belonging to a common class. Pi
mality problem to other, more tractable ar-

**Bernhard Riemann hypothesized in**
is a transcendental number—its digits run on
eas of mathematics, such as chaos theory and

**1859 that all the nontrivial zeros of**
**the function fall on a particular**
forever, and it cannot be expressed as a frac-

**line. See “Math’s Most Wanted,”**
tion of integers (such as 355⁄ 113) or as the so-
related (and easier) problems, and you prove

**Reviews, on page 94.) To date,**
lution to an algebraic equation (such as

*x*2 –
that pi is normal. “That would open the

**more than 5,000 participating**
2 = 0). In the universe of all known numbers,
floodgates to a variety of results in number

**computers have found more than**
transcendental numbers are in the majority.

theory that have eluded researchers for cen-

**300 billion zeros. For more**
**information, visit www.zetagrid.net**
But to mathematicians, the “normality”

**INTERNET A Man, a Plan, Spam**
A STANFORD LAWYER PITS HIS JOB AGAINST JUNK E-MAIL

**BY WENDY M. GROSSMAN**
L

**ike most Internet users,**Stanford Uni- service providers (ISPs) to prefilter junk. Fed-

eral antispam legislation hasn’t been tried yet,
hates junk e-mail—or, as it is formally
and unlike state laws—which have been en-
known, unsolicited commercial e-mail (UCE).

acted in 26 states since 1997, to little effect—
In fact, he hates it so much, he’s put his job on
it would have a chance at deterring American
the line. “I think it will work,” he says of his
spammers operating outside the nation’s bor-
scheme for defeating the megabyte loads of
ders. Second: offer a bounty to the world’s
penis extenders, Viagra offers, invitations to
computer users for every proven violator they
work at home, discount inkjet cartridges, and
turn in. Just try it, he says, and if it doesn’t
requests for “urgent assistance” to get yet an-
work, he’ll quit his job. He gets to decide on
the particular schemes; longtime sparring
about the Internet and recently argued before
lagh will decide whether it has worked.

the U.S. Supreme Court against the extension
of copyright protection, has developed a two-
mers] get to send 10 million e-mails and [they]
part plan. The first part is legislative: pass fed-
know five million will be delivered and 0.1
eral laws mandating consistent labeling so
percent will be considered and responded to,”
that it would be trivial for users and Internet
Lessig explains. “If all of a sudden you make

**24 **SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

Source: http://www.experimentalmath.info/news/sciam-2003.pdf

International Journal of Obesity (2001) 25, 1095±1099ß 2001 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 0307±0565/01 $15.00www.nature.com/ijoPAPERGastrointestinal side effects of orlistat may beprevented by concomitant prescription of natural®bers (psyllium mucilloid)H Cavaliere1, I Floriano1 and G Medeiros-Neto1*1Department of Clinical Medicine, University of SaÄo Paulo Medical School,

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