Bordetella in squirrels-10
Bordetella in Squirrels
In the last decade, rehabilitators have reported an increase
required 21 days). Doxycycline is the antibiotic of choice for
in the number of squirrels in rehabilitation dying
dogs and cats and may be used in rabbits, squirrels, and
unexpectedly and suddenly with few symptoms and no
other rodents. Nebulizers were also used for some cases.
obvious causes such as trauma or aspiration. Bordetel a has
Since antibiotic treatment often disrupts gut flora, concurrent
been confirmed by lab tests in some cases and
administration of probiotics may be needed.
rehabilitators believed it was responsible for more fatalities.
Quickly identifying and treating this serious and contagious
A few rehabilitators and veterinarians have treated
respiratory condition improves the animal’s chance of
Bordetel a infections in rodents with Nuflor, a next
recovery and decreases spread of the infection.
generation Chloramphenicol (antibiotic) approved for use
with livestock. Nuflor is an off-label use for non-livestock
Bordetel a bronchiseptica
is a gram-negative bacterium,
patients and could cause unforeseen side effects. Since it
commonly found in the respiratory system. It is part of the
may cause injection site reactions, oral administration has
normal respiratory flora in its non-pathogenic form. The
been preferred. Some veterinarians have prescribed it for
virulent or disease causing form can be activated in animals
wildlife since it is only used for 2 doses (loading dose and
with compromised health, or by the presence of stressors
second after 48 to 72 hrs). Nuflor needs to be handled with
such as overcrowding, transportation, poor ventilation and
extreme care and highly diluted due to potential risks.
other factors. Secondary infections may develop.
Some rehabilitators also have used classical homeopathy
Bordetel a is a highly contagious bacterium, whose victims
and reported positive results, especial y when giving the
include dogs (‘kennel cough’), cats, rabbits, and pet rodents.
homeopathic remedy Phosphorus 200c
to treat the active
Transmission may be airborne or by direct contact. This
symptoms (e.g., TID for 4-5 days) or Phos 30c
SID for 7
includes accidental transfer of bacteria on a caregiver, cage,
days on a prophylatic basis to help prevent animals that had
feeding instruments, etc. Incubation is believed to be 2 to 14
been exposed from developing the infection. Some
days. Although Bordetel a infection is not commonly
rehabilitators have used an antibiotic and homeopathic
described as zoonotic, some wildlife rehabilitators caring for
squirrels with Bordetel a developed respiratory symptoms,
several of which were confirmed as cases of Bordetel a.
Supportive care is essential, such as limiting activity by
keeping in a smal cage, providing supplemental heat,
Symptoms of Bordetel a infection in squirrels include:
ensuring good nutrition, and minimizing stressors such as
noise. Use effective hydration protocols with isotonic fluids
- Refusal to eat and/or fight attempts to feed, likely due to
As always, consult promptly and closely with a veterinarian
- Profuse, frequent urination, sometimes involuntary. While
profuse urination often is mentioned in squirrel cases, it
has not been mentioned as a common symptom in
other species. The profuse urination could be a
DeCubel is, Julie and Karen Shenoy. Bordetel a in young
secondary condition to this infection or another disease
rabbits and squirrels. 2006. NWRA Bul etin. Volume 24,
Harkness, John and Joseph Wagner. 2010. Biology of
- Rapid and significant dehydration and weight loss, likely
Rabbits and Rodents. Blackwel Publishing. Ames, IA.
due to profuse urination, fever and difficulty eating.
Kent, J. T. 1900. Lectures on Homeopathic Philosophy.
- A variety of respiratory conditions, which can include
sneezing, audible breathing, difficult or oppressed
Phatak, S.R. 2002. Materia Medica of Homoeopathic
respiration, gagging or coughing. Although respiratory
Medicines. B. Jain Publishers. New Delhi.
difficulties are not uncommon with squirrels that have
Schroyens, F. 2004. Synthesis: the Source Repertory.
aspirated, the profuse urination that has often preceded
the visible respiratory symptoms has been very
Due to Bordetel a’s highly contagious nature, rehabilitators
Shirley Casey, WildAgain Wildlife Rehabilitation, Inc. in
are urged to fol ow strict quarantine and sanitation protocols.
Evergreen, CO is co-author of the Squirrel Rehabilitation
Rehabilitators have reported that an orphan squirrel
Handbook. She has published and presented widely on
admitted to rehabilitation appeared reasonably healthy on
wildlife rehab topics. www.ewildagain.org
admission but quickly became dehydrated, refused to eat,
Mackenzie Goldthwait, DVM of Denver, Colorado,
possibly sneezed, and then died with 24 to 48 hours. Unless
graduated from Tufts University School of Veterinary
strict quarantine was observed for 14 days, exposure may
Medicine in 1989, with special interest in wildlife medicine.
have occurred before the new animal showed symptoms.
She has extensive experience with wildlife, exotics and
smal animals. She has been involved in writing for and
Antibiotics, particularly Bactrim (e.g., TMP, SMZ) and
Baytril™, have been effective in treating Bordetel a
infections in rodents when used for 14-21 days (many cases
2010 Shirley J. Casey and Mackenzie Goldthwait
Pursuant to Article 10, paragraphs 4, 27 and 105 of the Law on Scientific Research (“Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia” No 110/05, 50/06-corr. and 18/10), the Minister of Science and Technological Development hereby establishes the following PROGRAMME OF BASIC RESEARCH, PROGRAMME OF RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT, PROGRAMME OF CO-FUNDING OF INTEGRATE
EL LUGAR DE LOS PADRES EN LA ALFABETIZACIÓN MEDIÁTICA DE LOS HIJOS /THE FAMILY ROLE IN THEIR CHILDREN MEDIA EDUCATION Doctora en Periodismo. Miembro de Kids & Com Resumen En esta comunicación pretendemos difundir los resultados de una investigación dirigida a analizar los procesos de mediación de los padres en el uso y consumo televisivo infantil y las estrategias