Mais les résultats doivent être attendus longtemps et il n'y a généralement pas de temps metronidazole prix L'autre cas, c'est que l'achat d'un ou d'un autre antibiotique dans une pharmacie classique nécessite des dépenses matérielles considérables et pas toutes les personnes ne peuvent acheter des produits pharmaceutiques aussi coûteux.
In this unit children extend their knowledge of places around the school, and learn to talk about everyday routines and subjects
studied during the school day. They revise both telling the time on the hour and some adjectives to describe appearance.
In this unit children consolidate work on telling the time (Unit 11 and Unit 15). They begin to use extended descriptions of
people and share this information, in written form, with other members of the school community.
• Verbs: first person singular, eg (Yo)
Son las dos menos veinticinco / It is twenty-five / twenty / ten /
• Slips with partial written statements
of places in the school for amatching game
Primary framework for literacy: make notes when listening for a sustained period and discuss how note-taking varies dependingon context and purpose; analyse and evaluate how speakers present points effectively through use of language and gesture
Primary framework for mathematics: use vocabulary related to time; read the time to the hour (year 1)
PSHCE: meet and talk with people, for example people who work in the school
understand the Spanish for, and speak about, some school subjects and places
around school; use verbs correctly in the third person singular to describe
someone; write short sentences that include descriptions
understand the names of some school subjects and places around the school;
need prompting to recall vocabulary and structures; write short phrases from a model
write a description of everyday school activities and speak accurately about these;
give extended descriptions of people around the school in accurate Spanish, withsome attention to verb endings and adjectival agreement
Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007
• Stick photographs of some places in the school on the board, colour-coded by the
• In Spanish primary schools there are usually three separate halls: el salon de actos (for
gender of the words. Explain what each one is, eg Aquí está el campo de deportes (the
plays, concerts, etc), el comedor (the dining room) and el gimnasio (for PE and sports).
sports field), el jardín (the garden), el patio (the playground), el salón de actos (the hall),
• use a dictionary to cross-check English
• If children are going to make a digital video at the end of the unit, tell them about this
la clase (the classroom), la biblioteca (the library), la cocina (the kitchen), la entrada (the
now. They will need to remember the new language learnt to put into their script.
main entrance), los servicios (the toilets). Then turn them over. Alternatively, use images
• In words with ci/ce, the c sound is soft, like ‘th’ in ‘think’.
on the interactive whiteboard and then conceal them.
• Follow-up: Throughout the week, refer to places in the school by their Spanish names.
• Explain to children that they are going to do a five-minute challenge. Write the names of
• Follow-up: Children can use different colours to highlight the hard and soft c sounds in
the places on the board and ask children to work with a talk partner to decide what they
the words for places in their school.
think each word means in English. Encourage them to use a dictionary to cross-check.
• Follow-up: Children take digital pictures of places in the school and label these for
• Invite feedback and ask children how they identified the words. Encourage them to see
that there are words (eg la entrada, el aparcamiento) that are similar in Spanish and in
• If the school has a partner school in a Spanish-speaking country, send a labelled plan of
English, and to use their existing knowledge of Spanish words, eg deportes, to help
the school with photos and captions.
them find the meaning. Draw attention to the different ways of pronouncing c in cocina.
• The website Global Gateway provides opportunities for finding partner schools abroad:
Compare this with educación. Can children remember the rules (see ‘Points to note’)?
• Reveal the photographs again and children say the words after you in chorus. Invite a
volunteer to come to the front. Say, for example, Estoy buscando la clase (I’m looking forthe classroom). The child touches the correct photo and says Aquí está la clase. Repeatwith other volunteers. Ask individual children to come out and take the teacher’s role.
• Children play Pelmanism in pairs with double sets of small-sized photographs of places
in the school. The photos are placed face down. The first player turns one over and saysto his or her partner, for example, Estoy buscando la entrada. The second player turnsover a photo and says Aquí está + the name of that room. If the photos match, thesecond player keeps the pair; otherwise, they are placed back face down on the table.
The winner is the player with the most matching pairs.
• Children use a dictionary to find names of other places around the school to put in a
word bank. Can they use their knowledge of phoneme–grapheme correspondence towork out how to pronounce the new words? Get children to work in pairs. One childreads out a new word and the other writes it on a mini-whiteboard. They compare thespellings to see if they match and then swap roles.
• Extension: Remove all visual support from the board. Children play a memory game
where each child says a new word or phrase that they remember from the lesson. As anextra challenge, ask children to recall the words or phrases that other children said. They share their strategies for remembering vocabulary.
• Stick some photographs of places around the school on the walls. Keep others in your
• You could use activities in this section as an opportunity to revise familiar language such
hands. Revise the names of the places on the walls by pointing and saying, for example,
as greetings and asking somebody’s name. Ask children to decide in pairs who is the
Allí está la clase (There is the classroom) and Aquí está la entrada (Here is the main
visitor and who is the tour guide. The tour guide has to greet and introduce themself to
entrance) for those that you are holding. Ask children to identify the difference between
their visitor before embarking on the tour of the school.
aquí está and allí está. Give children an imaginary (or real) tour of the school, pointing
• Grammar point: In Spanish, the personal pronoun (yo, tú, etc) is used only for emphasis.
• to write sentences on a range of topics
out the different places. When you say aquí está they point near to them, and when you
It is not normally used in everyday speech. It is important that children learn to notice that
say allí está they point across the room / further away.
it is the verb ending which indicates the subject. (Where included here, the personal
• At the same time, draw their attention to the language structures aquí and allí (here and
there). Show the written forms and point out the accents. Remind children of the rules
• Follow-up: Throughout the week, children play Simon dice to practise the activities.
about accents from Unit 14, Section 1. Encourage children to start using these words for
• Either obtain photographs of a school from your Spanish-speaking partner or look at
themselves when they are moving around the school for different activities, eg assembly
Spanish primary schools’ websites.
• In a Spanish school, children are likely to sit at individual desks in rows. They do not have
• Revise some known activities by giving children an action to copy as you say the
as many displays as in an English primary school.
phrase, eg (Yo) leo/como/juego. Add some new ones, eg (Yo) corro (I run) and (Yo)
• Traditionally, Spanish schools have had a longer break in the middle of the day because
trabajo (I work). Children can then take on the teacher’s role and mime an action, while
many children go home for lunch. Yet this is changing and now schools tend to have a
their classmates work out which verb phrase they need to match.
9am to 2pm day. Children then go home for lunch but do not come back to school unless
• Explain to children that they are going to take a visitor on an imaginary walk around
they want to attend the after-school clubs organised by the Parents’ Association. Where
some places in school and say the activities that they do in each area. Ask children to
children do have school lunch, this is served by a cook, with members of the teaching
stand up (¡Levantaos!) and to listen, repeat and mime as they pretend to walk around
staff supervising (there are no school meal supervisors).
school, eg Aquí está la biblioteca. Aquí leo (Here is the library. I read here), Allí está el
• Children in Spanish state primary schools do not wear uniform.
comedor. Allí como (There is the hall. I eat there). Alternatively, show the photos used at
• Follow-up: Look in more detail at the similarities and differences between Spanish and
the start of the unit again, and get children to complete sentences, eg Aquí está la clase.
English schools. If the school is linked with a Spanish-speaking one, swap photographs
Aquí leo (Here is the classroom. I read here).
for children to discuss. These can be used in a class display with captions written
• Show children a variety of photos from a Spanish school, and discuss some of the
differences between school life in Spain and in England.
• Follow-up: If the school has a Spanish-speaking partner school, children agree on a set
• Give each group of four children an envelope containing two pictures of places in a
of questions to send to their counterparts in order to elicit some views about their school.
Spanish school, a selection of sentences that introduce an area in the school and some
This may be done in English and views compared with their own.
that say what activity someone does there. Children look at the pictures and find the
• If the children will be making a video at the end of the unit, these are very good activities
appropriate sentences to describe them. They arrange these to make a short written
text. Ask some groups to show their pictures and read aloud their texts.
• You may need to prepare a template or writing frame on a word processor to make the
• Children write their own short texts on a place in their school, using the above as a
task accessible to the whole class. Children can cut and paste words and phrases into a
model. Some children will need the support of a writing frame.
• Extension: Children take a photograph of the place in school that they wrote about as
illustration. Use this work as the basis of a display.
• Ask children to use the photographs to spot any key differences and similarities between
• Number six photos of an area in school (1–6) and six photos of activities in school (1–6).
• A suggestion for starting a song to the tune of ‘Nice One Cyril’:
Divide the class into two teams. A child in the first team throws a die and calls out the
• to write sentences on a range of topics
number. A second child rolls another die and calls out that number. Children in the
second team call out the corresponding area of the school and activity. If this
• create their own text to memorise and
combination makes sense, the team wins a point, eg 1) Aquí está la biblioteca. 2) Aquí
leo. If it doesn’t make sense, the other team gets a point, eg 1) Aquí está la entrada.
• Play Clock Bingo to revise telling the time. Ask children to make a Bingo card by drawing
• Alternatively, you can set the words to another simple tune.
six clock faces showing times on the hour. Use these for a quick game.
• Ensure that children are in mixed-ability groups for pair and group work.
• Use a large clock face as you model how to say the time on the quarter-hour, eg Son las
• Follow-up: Throughout the week, children write a simple diary to record times and
cinco y cuarto / menos cuarto (It is quarter past/to five). Call out some times at random
activities, eg Lunes, son las once / a las once, leo.
and children show you these on their own small clock face. Invite an individual child to
• Follow-up: Take opportunities to say the time or places around school in Spanish.
call out a time and the class race to show this on their small clock face. The first child toshow and then repeat the correct time becomes the caller for the next round.
• Model minutes past and to the hour, using five-minute intervals, eg Son las cinco y cinco,
son las cinco y diez, etc (It is five past five, ten past five, etc), encouraging children tostart to join in with you. Repeat with Son las cinco menos veinticinco, son las cincomenos veinte, etc (It is twenty-five to five, twenty to five, etc). Perform a Mexican Wave(see Unit 3, Section 5) around the class, going around the clock in five-minute intervals,eg Son las diez, son las diez y cinco, etc.
• Explain to children that you are going to say some sentences in which you will use a
time, an area in the school and an activity, eg Son las diez y cuarto. Aquí está la clase.
Aquí trabajo. Ask children to listen carefully and only repeat if what you say makes sense.
Use visuals to support less confident children. To consolidate the activity, show thepictures and texts on the interactive whiteboard. Give the children a few moments toread before asking them whether the sentences make sense.
• Ask children to show on a small clock face or draw on their mini-whiteboard the time that
you say. Invite them to work in pairs to create some sentences about school that involvethat time, a place and an activity.
• Give children the beginning of a song to the tune of ‘Nice One Cyril’ (see ‘Points to
note’ for suggestions). Ask children to work independently or in groups to create theirown verse. Some will benefit from having a phrase bank or photographs as prompts.
Conduct the class and bring in each group to perform their verse.
Section 4. Everyday routines and school subjects
• to use spoken language confidently to
• In pairs, give children six statement cards about the school day. These should include a
• For the fourth activity, you could use a year 7 timetable to get children used to what a
time, a place where an activity happens and an everyday school activity that is new to the
secondary school day might look like.
children, eg Es la hora de entrada (It’s the start of school), Es la hora de pasar lista (It’s
• Follow-up: Throughout the week, children play ¿Qué hora es, Señor Lobo? (What’s the
registration), Es el recreo (It’s playtime), Es la hora de la comida (It’s lunchtime), Es la hora
Time, Mr Wolf?) (see Unit 11, Section 3).
de salida (It’s time to go home). An example of a statement: Son las nueve. Aquí está
• Follow-up: If the school is linked with a Spanish-speaking partner school, children can
la clase. Es la hora de pasar lista. (It is nine o’clock. Here is the classroom. It is
compare their school day. You can model an email with a writing frame that incorporates
registration.) Ask children to read the statements with their partner and put them into
statements plus a time, eg Son las nueve. Es la hora de entrada. If the Spanish children
the correct order according to the time of day. Provide some children with picture cards
use the same structure for their return messages, your children will be able to read them
with greater success and therefore enjoyment.
• Stick on the board a mixture of word cards with school subjects, eg español (Spanish),
• Follow-up: Discuss with children the structure of the Spanish school week, eg a shorter
educación física (PE), matemáticas (mathematics), inglés (English), and word cards with
day. Would children prefer this? Discuss the implications this may have for family life.
everyday school activities. Point to each one and say the words. Ask individual children
• The register is not taken in most Spanish schools.
to come out and group the school subjects together.
• Stick flashcards with symbols of the school subjects on the board as you say them and
children repeat. Ask the children to close their eyes (Cerrad los ojos) and remove a card.
Ask them to open their eyes (Abrid los ojos) and say which card is missing. Repeat,taking one card away each time until they can say all of the items from memory.
• Name an everyday activity or school subject and ask children to suggest the time when
it usually happens, eg el español – ¿A qué hora es? ¿Es a las nueve o a las diez? Whenchildren are confident, invite a volunteer to take the teacher’s role.
• Revise the structure practised in the first activity, but incorporate school subjects, eg Son
las diez. Aquí está la clase. Es la hora de matemáticas. (It is ten o’clock. Here is theclassroom. It is time for mathematics.)
• Give children some mini-flashcards with the symbols of school subjects. In pairs, they ask
and answer each other’s questions about the times of these lessons. They can refer tothe timetable provided earlier so that their partner can check their answers.
• Extension: Children make posters with times and written captions to show a day’s
• Revise the key adjectives used to describe appearance, eg by referring to pictures of
• listen attentively and understand key
• For the extension tasks, some children may need a writing frame in order to complete the
• Explain to children that you are going to pretend to be another teacher who works at the
• Follow-up: Throughout the week, play 20 Questions, where children ask questions to gain
school, and describe yourself. Give simple personal information, such as age, likes and
clues as to the identity of a famous person.
• to use spoken language confidently to
dislikes, hobbies, hair and eye colour and role in the school. Ask children to write notes /
• Follow-up: Throughout the week, give children one clue a day (in the first person singular)
jot down key words they hear on mini-whiteboards before guessing who you have
about a member of staff, child in the class or famous person. Ask the children to try to
• Hand out some partial written statements from the above description, ending with
• Links with literacy work: The first and fourth activities link to year 3 drama work on
Me llamo . Individual children try to fill in the blanks using the notes they made on their
presenting characters through dialogue to engage the interest of an audience. The third
mini-whiteboards. They then read out their description and complete it with their guess,
activity links to work from year 2 onwards on listening to others in class and asking
eg Me llamo . señor Smith. This could be done in teams, with the quickest team to
questions. The first extension activity links to work in years 3 and 4 on sustaining talk.
finish and correctly identify the teacher winning a point.
The second extension activity links to writing descriptions in year 3.
• In pairs, children work on a description of another teacher. Give them key words on a
prompt sheet to help. They should take it in turns to practise asking and answering thequestions, and then try them out on the rest of the class. Can they guess who is beingdescribed? Remind children that they should pretend to be the person they aredescribing (they can then use the first person singular).
• Once pairs have performed their dialogue, the class suggest two good points and one
• Extension: Children work with a partner to create a new conversation with a real or
imaginary person and perform this to the class.
• Extension: Children use familiar language to write a short piece about themselves.
• Explain to children that they are going to be detectives and find out who the key people
• Children in Spain tend to address their teachers by their first names.
in their school are. Show them a series of ‘mystery’ words. They copy you by saying these
• Grammar point: Most professions have masculine and feminine forms in Spanish and
in a ‘mysterious’ voice, eg el director (headteacher), el maestro (teacher), el conserje
these should be used if appropriate to the school, eg la directora, la maestra, la conserje,
(caretaker), la secretaria (secretary), el cocinero (cook). Children guess who these people
are. Use mime and gesture to help with meanings.
• It may be helpful to use picture flashcards to improve children’s understanding of
• Play a version of The Cat’s Whiskers, using the question ¿Quién es? (Who is it?) Ask
children to guess the identity of three members of staff in turn. Each false guess means
• Ensure that groupings allow all children to participate in activities.
that another part of the cat’s face is drawn. Draw children’s attention to the use of the
• Follow-up: Throughout the week, give children a new clue every day about a member of
third person singular (tiene) instead of the first person singular (tengo). Describe four
staff so that they can work out their identity.
pieces of information: firstly, hair colour, eg (Él/Ella) tiene el pelo rubio/negro/moreno/
pelirrojo/castaño (He/She has blonde/black/dark brown/auburn/brown hair), then eyecolour, eg (Él/Ella) tiene los ojos azules/castaños/verdes (He/She has blue/brown/greeneyes). Give children a third piece of personal information and then lastly the staffmember’s role in school.
• Invite the class to discuss what kind of information they needed to decide the identities
of the members of staff and why the third person singular was used.
• Give groups of children an envelope in which there are sets of clues about a member of
staff. Give one member of the group a card with the name and role in the school of themystery person. They keep this secret from the other members of their team. Give thegroups five minutes to decide who this person is and write their name and role in theschool on a mini-whiteboard. They can make as many guesses as they like within the fiveminutes until they get it right. The child with the answer card keeps a tally of how manyguesses it takes.
• If possible, take digital photographs of members of staff. Insert each photograph into an
interactive whiteboard screen and draw round the photograph. Delete the photographand let children recognise the staff member from the outline. They can then say inSpanish what colour the hair and eyes should be. They should gradually see arecognisable image of the person concerned.
• Children feed back, saying how many guesses it took and what clues helped them.
• Children collaborate to share their new knowledge around the school. They make a staff
• Ensure that all children have a role to play in these end-of-unit activities.
‘Who’s who’ board for the front entrance. They take digital photos and write captions of
• If the school has a Spanish-speaking partner school, ask them to email a quiz about some
two or three short sentences about each person.
of their staff members. They send short pen portraits and photographs for children to
• Some children make badges for members of staff with their roles in Spanish. Others
• present information in a variety of ways
match. Children email their answers to the partner school for checking.
make door labels with people’s photo, name and role.
• Links with literacy work: The first activity links to work on writing captions from year 2
• Some children write pen portraits of staff for the school newsletter. They interview,
onwards. The third activity links to writing character portraits in year 5.
in Spanish, any members of staff with knowledge of the language and write this up for
• If the children have been involved in the digital photograph outline in Section 6, they can
use the outline drawings of members of staff as ‘identikit’ pictures for the ‘wanted’ posters.
• Some children create illustrated ‘wanted’ posters of staff or of their classmates that are
• Children form film crews. They make a digital video of the school, deciding who will be
the cameramen and presenters. They then edit the video using accessible software. They can share the video with a partner school abroad, or with other schools in the local area.
WELCOME TO OUR OFFICE Name: ____________________________________________________________ Date of Birth: ______________________________________ Address: __________________________________________________________ City: ______________________ State: ________ Zip Code: ________ Phone Number: ____________________________________________________ Social Security Number: ______________________________
INTRODUÇÃO Os anticoagulantes são medicamentos com ação no atraso da coagulação sangüínea, sendo aplicados no tratamento das patologias do sistema circulatórios e distúrbios da coagulação. Dentre os anticoagulantes de via oral tem-se a varfarina, um clássico, por ser mais confiável e mais conhecido é o mais prescrito, graças a sua excelente biodisponibilidade (REMIÃO, 2004