@EKIF;L:[email protected] Construction Products patented Pentra – Sil Liquid Hardener uses exclusive lithium chemistry to make the best concrete hardener and densifier available today. Concrete is exposed to harsh chemical, mechanical, and atmospheric elements that can cause the concrete to deteriorate. Pentra – Sil penetrates into the substrate where it reacts with weak calcium hydroxide to form stronger and more stable tricalcium silicate hydrate. The lithium component is also effective in mitigating and preventing damaging alkali-silica reactions. It is a colourless transparent liquid that penetrates concrete, protecting, preserving and strengthening it. It does this by penetrating the surface and solidifying the components of the concrete into one solid mass. Typical application for high trafﬁc distribution centre. Sealing, dustprooﬁng, hardening & cleanability.
=FIN8I;• ASR Protection - It contains Lithium, the only chemical hardener that can help mitigate and prevent damaging alkali- silica reactions (ASR) in concrete.
• It seals the concrete – micro channels in concrete are sealed against water and chemical attack
• It hardens the concrete – approximately 40% harder than non-treated concrete and more abrasion resistant
• It dust proofs – creating a cleaner, healthier environment
• Permanent – one penetrating application is all that is needed. No coating to peel, chip or wear off.
• Easy maintenance – makes cleaning easier and reduces
Freshly finished concrete : None Required. Existing Concrete
Good floor surfaces don’t just happen. They are a culmination
: Sweep, scrub or strip concrete to remove any surface
of many factors including good concrete mix design, low water:
cement ratio concrete, mechanical vibration during placement, good curing and protection of the finished surface.
Pentra – Sil protects a floor against dusting, pitting, and spalling.
Colourless, odourless, non-toxic, non-combustible, non-
Pentra – Sil produces a densified concrete through a chemical
flammable. Complies with all VOC regulations.
reaction with the products of cement hydration. Pentra – Sil is extremely effective in assisting the curing of
concrete in warm weather when applied immediately after the
ASR is a worldwide problem that occurs when the alkali in
finishing process and kept wet for 45 minutes.
the aggregates reacts with the silica in the Cement and with
Pentra – Sil seals concrete floor surfaces into a solid mass by
water to form an expansive gel, which can break concrete
densifying the microscopic pore structures.
apart. Other chemical hardeners use potassium or sodium compounds, which can raise alkalinity and contribute to
Pentra – Sil makes concrete surfaces 40% harder within 30 days.
ASR. Pentra – Sil uses exclusive lithium ion technology that
This is best measured as an increase in 6-8 on the Moh’s Scale.
does not contribute to the alkalinity and can even help
Pentra – Sil combines with the products of cement hydration
and cement salts, becoming an integral part of the matrix, thus completely dust proofing the surface.
As Pentra – Sil penetrates the micro channels in concrete, it
Moisture loss during critical initial 24 hour period was
reacts to form insoluble silicate structures that seal the concrete.
determined on treated and untreated samples in a controlled
This helps protect the concrete from water penetration and
environment cabinet : 93% more moisture loss from untreated
makes it more resistant to many types of chemicals. It also
leaves a sheen on the floor that is much easier to maintain.
ASTM C39 – 40% increase in compressive strength at 7 days,
Pentra – Sil hardens the concrete making it stronger and more
38 % increase at 28 days over untreated samples. ASTM C 805
abrasion resistant. It also dust proofs the concrete, so particles
– Schmidt Hammer: 13.3% increased impact resistance.
of concrete will not circulate within a building creating a health and maintenance problem. [email protected]:[email protected] C-1028 – Coefficient of friction on steel troweled Pentra-
Sil treated samples: 0.86 dry, and 0.69 wet, far less slippery than
Pentra – Sil is much less expensive than urethanes and epoxy
coatings, and much more durable. Epoxies and Urethanes need to be stripped and re-applied every 3-5 years, at great expense. Pentra-Sil will not peel, tear, or wear off – one application is all
ASTM G23 – Ultra violet light and water spray exposure had no adverse effect on Pentra-Sil treated samples.
:[email protected]>[email protected]<Pentra-Sil seals and cures the concrete by permanently locking
the matrix pore structure from within. The process continues
over time but is essentially complete within 90 days.
No surface film or coating present to peel or blister. The floor will have a satin sheen. The shine will intensify with time, use and maintenance. Optimum water repellency and hardness
develop within seven days. Do not use acidic cleaners
Can be applied to new or existing surfaces. Applications are
Aggressive cleaning with a neutral to high pH detergent
only to be performed by licensed, certified applicators to ensure
works best for long term maintenance. The Pentra – Sil
quality and owner satisfaction. On fully cured concrete, the
treatment will also help force contaminants out of the concrete,
treated surface can be used as soon as it is dry to the touch.
provided the floor is regularly cleaned.
(Usually 1-2 hours), using low-pressure sprayer, brush or roller. After 30 minutes remove residue with vacuum or squeegee.
N?8KKF<OG<:K8=K<I()DFEK?JWith a good cleaning programme the floor will have an
attractive satin sheen and the surface will be hard-shell. Most
1 to 2 hours. The surface may be used as soon as the application
foods and liquids will not penetrate the surface.
is complete and the surface is again dry to the touch. Newly laid surfaces require the normal period for concrete to develop adequate compressive strength, usually 28 days. [email protected]<E8E:<[email protected] the floor often. The abrasion polishes the floor and brings up the shine. Us a low pH detergent to clean the floor. Clean up
spills quickly. Acid concentrates can etch the surface.
Generally one coat depending on porosity of the surface.
Coca Cola, DELTA Airlines, Federal Express, Michelin, Motorola, Westinghouse, Caterpillar, Chrysler, Volvo, UPS, Boeing, Honda, John Deere, IBM, Honda, SEARS, Pennzoil, American Airlines,
General Electric, General Motors, Ikea, VW, Pepsi Cola, Dow
[email protected]I<[email protected]:<ASTM C 779 – Depth of Wear. Abrasion resistance – revolving disks. 32,5% improvement at 30 minutes. PENTRA-SIL DRY SHAKE PENTRA-SIL
Penetration by over 90%.(See Penetration.
all qualities get better as time worsen as time passes. Pentra - Sil 244+™ All the benefits of Pentra – Sil but includes
an exclusive chloride ion screen that reduces salt penetration
into concrete by over 90% as tested by WJE following the
NCHRP 244 procedures. Ideal for marine / coastal concrete
Pentra-Protect™ – Performs as a system in combination
with Pentra-Sil and Pentra-Sil 244+. Ideal for parking facilities, maintenance areas, workshops, service bays and manufacturing areas. System is oil repellent and protects against staining from greases, hydraulic fluids, fuels, oils and fatty materials. It penetrates, is invisible and is breathable. At last a system that can safely and effectively protect your surface from unsightly staining without the negative characteristics of coatings. Pentra-Sil colours
Nestle distribution centre Mazda workshop Helicopter hanger
:C=:feZi\k\CXj\i=cffi`e^GkpCk[ PO Box 2589, Witkoppen, 2068, Johannesburg, SA • www.norcon.co.zaTel: +27 11 704 5557 • Fax: +27 11 462 1456 • E-mail: [email protected]
The information given is based on knowledge and performance of the material. Every precaution is taken in the manufacture of the product and the responsibility is limited to the quality of supplies, with no guarantee of results in the ﬁeld as Norton Construction Products has no control over site conditions or execution of works.
Parte III da Constituição da República: Semipresidencialismo “on probation”? 1. A arquitectura do poder político na Constituição em vigor: Na elaboração de um juízo estimativo sobre o que deve subsistir na “Organiza-ção do Poder Político” do Estado será indispensável ter como ponto de partida o modelo arquitectónico do mesmo poder, ou seja, o sistema político