The Martyrology-Necrology and the Necrology in the
(Avranches, Bibliothèque municipale, MS 214)
‘Dead men tell no tales’, says the proverb, not entirely accurately. Dead men – andwomen – have plenty to say, although they need specialist help to say it. Even then, aspathologists and other forensic scientists will testify, they may be apt to mutter ratherthan to speak distinctly. Some of them tell lies. Catching them out in that act demandsthe sort of forensic skills peculiar to the medievalist, used as he is to retelling the storyof the past from innumerable, ill-fitting, and frequently improbable fragments of it,often in the form of texts written in no-longer-living languages. It is easy to forget, orsimply to overlook, the eloquence of the dead. As a prosopographer, constantlyinvolved with the reconstruction of the minutiae of individual lives, my concern withmy subjects is with their living, not with the fact that they are now long dead. On theface of it, a necrological record indicating the day of the year on which a subject diedmight be nothing more than the point at which to draw the line. In fact, the place, oreven places, in which such records occur yields significant information about thesubject’s life, rather than his death. For an obituary notice is every bit as much aboutand for the living as a record in a liber vitae, the only difference being that in the latterthe subjects were often still alive at the moment when their names were recorded. Equally important, the fact that compilations of such records were kept by the sameinstitution preserves information about groups as well as individuals, and about howthese groups relate to the recording institution and even to other institutions. Thepotential of necrologies as witnesses to lost lives is almost limitless.1
I might never have discovered the importance of necrological evidence in its
fullest sense if I had not begun eight years ago to work on a much-needed edition ofthe Cartulary of Mont-Saint-Michel. The Cartulary is prefaced by a history of theabbey which has been the basis of all historiography for the past 900 years, although it
See Nicholas Huyghebaert, Les Documents nécrologiques (Typologie des sources du moyen âgeoccidentale 4; Turnhout, 1972), pp. 63 ff. I should like to thank Professor Neithard Bulst and DrVéronique Gazeau for their comments upon an earlier draft of this paper. Grateful thanks also to editorProfessor David Rollason for his sterling work in making this paper more reader-friendly than it wouldotherwise have been.
is patently unsatisfactory. I started to dip into the necrologies in the hope of informa-tion concerning the period covered by the cartulary. The results far exceeded expecta-tions. Mont-Saint-Michel is one of the most famous of all European monasteries. Itssurviving collection of manuscripts, now at Avranches, has frequently been discussedby art historians.2 Relatively little work has been done on the texts which relate to theabbey’s liturgy or administration, though the surviving manuscripts provide consider-able detail about most periods of the abbey’s history from 1050 onwards. In view ofthis and of the potential noted above, I am preparing editions of texts in two of thesemanuscripts, namely the Cartulary of the Mont from Avranches, Bibliothèquemunicipale, MS 210, and a necrology and a martyrology-necrology from Avranches,Bibliothèque municipale, MS 214. I shall attempt here to give at least a brief indica-tion of the relationships between the Mont’s Cartulary and its necrologies, and howboth might be used to establish a history of their community. Principally, however,this paper aims to examine the necrologies found in the Mont’s surviving ChapterBook and how they were used. A number of illustrative texts, taken from the ChapterBook and a later Ceremonial, have been edited in the Appendix. The Cartulary in Avranches 210
Avranches, Bibliothèque municipale, MS 210 contains the only surviving cartulary oftwo known to have existed. Some of the texts it contains have been published; someare well-known, even notorious. But because, as is frequently the fate of cartularies, ithas not been studied as a unique written work, its texts have been little explored andthe whole is thoroughly misunderstood.
In an article published in 1999 I investigated two principal, interrelated, questions:
at what date was the Cartulary written and why?3 Clear answers can be provided toboth questions by combining codicological study of the manuscript with close ana-lysis of the Cartulary’s texts. The Cartulary of Mont-Saint-Michel, like any othercartulary of the early or central Middle Ages, is a unique literary work written in orderto fulfil a purpose of great importance at a specific moment in the monastery’shistory. A cartulary should be regarded as a unitary compilation, composed of anumber of smaller texts deliberately arranged to form the whole. Material added afterthe cartulary has been completed may have changed the character of the original workand cannot be considered as part of it. This is very evident in the Cartulary ofMont-Saint-Michel, where the addition of a Register of Abbot Robert of Torignyfrom fol. 112v marks a dramatic break with the genuine Cartulary, which occupies
An important and wide-ranging collection of articles on various aspects of the abbey’s history is avail-able in Mill. mon. The articles in the first volume provide an essential introduction to Mont liturgy, but agreat deal remains to be done. On the manuscripts see J. J. G. Alexander, Norman Illumination atMont-Saint-Michel, 966–1100 (Oxford, 1970); François Avril, ‘La décoration des manuscrits duMont-Saint-Michel, xi–xii siècles’, Mill. mon., II, 203–38; Monique Dosdat, L’enluminure romane auMont Saint-Michel xe–xiie siècles (Rennes and Avranches, 1991), discusses the cartulary on pp. 72–81;A. Boinet, ‘L’illustration du cartulaire du Mont-Saint-Michel’, Bibliothèque de l’Ecole de Chartes 70(1909), 333–4, 337.
All the issues raised in this and the following paragraph are fully discussed in my article, K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, ‘Bibliothèque municipale d’Avranches, 210: Cartulary of Mont-Saint-Michel’, Anglo-Norman Studies 21 (1999), 95–112. References to items in the Cartulary are given here by the itemnumber of my edition, currently in press.
fols. 5r–112r. Attentive study of the text soon reveals that an error by a nine-teenth-century librarian made Robert of Torigny responsible for the Cartulary, whichwas in fact produced in the brief abbacy of his predecessor Geoffrey (May1149–December 1150).4 The purpose of the Cartulary was in part to produce a found-ers’ and benefactors’ memorial book, and in part to defend the rights of the monasticcommunity to elect its own abbot in accordance with Chapter 64 of the Rule of SaintBenedict. This right became a major issue after 1009, when Abbot Mainard II wasreplaced by an abbot acceptable to Richard II of Normandy. From then until the timethe Cartulary was written, c.1150, the monks tried and mostly failed to maintain inpost an elected abbot of their own choice. The Cartulary occupied an all-too brieflybrilliant place in the struggle since Abbot Geoffrey had been elected by his monks andit was he who obtained from Pope Eugenius III a bull that confirmed the monks’Benedictine right to elect his successors.5 Geoffrey’s death before the bull arrivedplunged the abbey into a period of near-catastrophic conflict with Henry of Anjou,lasting until the election of Robert of Torigny in 1154. As a result, work on theCartulary was abandoned and never subsequently completed.
The Cartulary texts fall into three principal groups. The first contains the earliest
known version of the Historia, an amalgam of two earlier texts which became hence-forth the official version of the Mont’s history. The texts were the ninth-centuryRevelatio, used as a lectionary for the feast of the Dedication of St Michael’s Basilica(fols. 5r–10r), and the late-eleventh-century compilation known as Introductiomonachorum (fols. 10r–19r).6 The second group presents the major charters of dona-tion and benefaction, many of them from the late tenth and early eleventh centuries(mostly found between fols. 20r and 72v). The third group presents a series of chartersof restitution extracted by the great Abbot Bernard in the period c.1135 to 1149 (fols. 72v to 112r). Of the 115 individual charter texts, facsimiles or other versions of theoriginals survive in forty-six cases, ranging from the tenth to the twelfth century. Analysis shows that the copyist set out faithfully to record exactly what was in hisexemplar, including the interpolations he found in the pseudo-originals of the chartersof the Norman rulers. Although it was never finished, there is a satisfying balance ofcomposition in the Cartulary text which reveals a literary design of considerable skill. The principal leitmotif of the work is the community’s identity as monks of St Bene-dict, subject only to their abbot and to God and not to temporal powers.
The librarian wrote on a flyleaf now numbered I: ‘Table des Matières contenues dans le grand cartulairedu Mont-Saint-Michel, rédigé par Robert du Mont, abbé au 12e siècle . . .’. His was a false assumption,based upon the register starting on fol. 112v, that passed unchecked into all subsequent accounts of themanuscript.
Dated 15 December 1150, edited from a vidimus of Jehan d’Anneville, lieutenant général du bailli duCotentin, dated 28 December 1523, in Cartulaire du Jersey. Recueil de documents concernantl’histoire de l’île conservés aux archives de la Manche (Jersey, 1918–20), no. 9, pp. 13–15, andJ. Ramackers, Papsturkunden in Frankreich, 2te Band: Normandie (Göttingen, 1937), no. 60, pp. 135–7. It will be reprinted as Appendix ii.11 in my forthcoming edition of the Mont’s cartulary. OnAbbot Geoffrey, see Jean Huynes, Histoire générale de l’abbaye du Mont Saint-Michel au péril de lamer, publié par Eugène de Robillard de Beaurepaire (2 vols., Rouen 1872–3), I, 171.
I am indebted to discussions with Professor Pierre Bouet, who is preparing new editions of these textsfrom all the surviving copies and has determined that the Introductio monachorum is a late elev-enth-century compilation incorporating earlier material. A part of it, the Miracula, is not found in theCartulary version of the Historia. The complete text was published in Les curieuses recherches duMont Saint-Michel par Dom Thomas Le Roy, published by Eugène de Robillard de Beaurepaire (Extraitdes Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de Normandie; 2 vols., Caen, 1878), I, 419ff. The Necrology and Martyrology-Necrology in Avranches 214: distinction between them
The original, late twelfth- and thirteenth-century core of Avranches 214, to whichlater additions were made, consisted of the Rule of St Benedict (part II, pp. 1–72), alectionary (part II, pp. 77–108), the Martyrology-Necrology (part I, pp. 1–196) and amuch larger Necrology (part II, pp. 109–99).7 The earliest of these texts, theMartyrology-Necrology and the Rule, were copied during the reign of Abbot Jordan,between 1191 and 1212, obviously recompiling and reorganising older material thathad become difficult to use. Undoubtedly these texts form the oldest survivingChapter Book of Mont-Saint-Michel, in use from the early thirteenth centuryonward.8 Previously neglected, chapter books have been much studied in recentyears, thanks mainly to Dom Jacques Dubois and Jean-Loup Lemaître, the leadingexperts on French martyrologies and necrologies.9 Rules for the conduct of chapterliturgy, held after the office of Prime, were established in Canon 69 of the Council ofAix in 816, which required the reading of the names of the saints of the day from amartyrology in addition to part of the Rule.10 By the end of the century it wascustomary also to read the names of the dead from a necrology. The model on whichall subsequent chapter books were based was written at Saint-Germain des Prés c.860and contained the earliest copy of the monk Usuard’s Martyrology (Paris,Bibliothèque nationale, MS lat. 13745). By the eleventh century a fusion known as amartyrology-necrology was common. In these texts the necrology was inserted intothe available space around each item in the martyrology (normally a version of theUsuard Martyrology first written at St Germain c.860),11 or, more rarely, intercalatedin deliberately created spaces attached to each item.12 Long before the thirteenth
The final verso of the Cartulary was blank when the text was abandoned. Subsequently the start of aregister of Abbot Robert was written on to it. Several similar texts on other folia were added to thewhole and finally bound together for the first time around 1372. Several comparable manuscriptsreceived the same treatment at two principal periods in the abbey’s history, the early fifteenth century,when Abbot Pierre Le Roy (1386–1411) reorganised the archives, and secondly in the Maurist seven-teenth century. One of them, Avranches 214, consists of a number of texts copied at various times fromthe early thirteenth to the early fifteenth century. It includes the Customary of 1258 (part I, pp. 1–16), acalendar (part I, fols. I–XII) and the Ceremonial (part II, pp. 201–64).
Jacques Dubois, ‘Obituaires et martyrologes’, in L’Église et la mémoire des morts dans la Francemédiévale: Communications présentées à la table ronde du C.N.R.S. le 14 juin 1982 (ÉtudesAugustiniennes; Paris, 1986), ed. Jean-Loup Lemaître, p. 120.
Jean-Loup Lemaître, Répertoire des documents nécrologiques français (Rec. Ob. 7); Jean-LoupLemaître, ‘Liber Capituli: le Livre du chapitre, des origines au XVIe siècle. L’exemple français’, inMemoria: Der geschichtliche Zeugniswert des liturgischen Gedenkens im Mittelalter, ed. K. Schmidand J. Wollasch (Munich, 1984), pp. 635–48; L’Église et la mémoire des morts, ed. Lemaître;Jean-Loup Lemaître, ‘Aux origines de l’office du chapitre et de la salle capitulaire’, in La Neustrie: Lespays au nord de la Loire de 650 à 850: Colloque historique international, ed. H. Atsma (Beihefte derFrancia 16; 2 vols., Sigmaringen, 1989), II, 365–8. Jean Vezin, ‘Problèmes de datation et de localisa-tion des livres de l’office de Prime’, in Memoria, ed. Schmid and Wollasch, pp. 613–24. JacquesDubois, Les martyrologes du moyen âge latin (Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental 26;Turnhout, 1978); Jacques Dubois, Le martyrologe d’Usuard, texte et commentaire (SubsidiaHagiographica 40; Brussels, 1965). A. J. Piper, ‘The Durham Cantor’s Book’, A-ND, pp. 79–92.
10 Jean-Loup Lemaître, ‘Liber Capituli’, pp. 628–37; Michel Huglo, ‘L’office de prime au chapitre’, in
L’Église et la mémoire, ed. Lemaître, pp. 11–15.
11 Jacques Dubois, Le martyrologe d’Usuard . . . (as in note 9 above). The Mont used the second recension
of Usuard. See Dubois, ‘Le martyrologe de l’abbaye du Mont-Saint-Michel’, in Mill. mon., I, 489–99.
12 Lemaître, ‘Liber Capituli’, 637–48.
century martyrology-necrologies were normally being disaggregated into two separ-ate texts.13 Even though creation of such a text in the early thirteenth century or laterwas unusual, the Mont monks not only chose to compile their Martyrology-Necrology in the thirteenth century, but also made additions to it throughout the four-teenth and fifteenth centuries, indicating that it continued in use in its fused form.
Although medieval terminology for books recording the names of the dead was
variable, the term martirologium/logum was widespread and was the one in use at theMont to refer to a range of texts (in addition to martyrologies as such),14 the typologyof which has proved difficult to establish. The study by Nicholas Huyghebaert,published in 1972,15 rejected an earlier typology suggested by Charles Saraman.16The typology followed here, which most accurately reflects the evolution of thesetexts during the Middle Ages, is the one elaborated by Jean-Loup Lemaître in 1980.17Memorials of the dead fall into three main groups: the necrology, the obituary and thesimple list. Essentially, necrologies are liturgical texts found in chapter books of theearly and central Middle Ages. The obituary is an administrative text that evolves outof the growing practice of endowing anniversary commemorations for specific indi-viduals. Such texts belong to the later Middle Ages and are not found in chapterbooks. Nevertheless, the genesis of the obituary can clearly be seen in the fourteenth-and fifteenth-century additions to the necrologies in the chapter book, which reflectthe changing trends in memorialisation of the dead. Each type is laid out as a complete365-day calendar with spaces between each day for the insertion of the names of thedead. A list of the dead, however long, however detailed, is neither a necrology nor anobituary if it is not in a calendar. As regards necrologies and obituaries, there is also adifference in function. In a necrology the dead are intended to be remembered on theanniversary of the day of their deaths. In an obituary the dates relate to an annualcommemoration of a deceased person which was not necessarily related to the day ofhis or her death. Moreover, the obituary records the endowment which had beenmade, usually in his lifetime by the person remembered, for the anniversary. There isnormally no real distinction between the quality of persons who occur in the texts. Both necrologies and obituaries can contain the names of professed members of thecommunity, including members ad succurrendum (normally postulants who diedbefore or soon after taking their preliminary vows), as well as those attached to it byconfraternity, both ecclesiastic and lay, relatives of the monks, familiars and lay bene-factors. However, necrologies normally maintain a formal distinction between
13 Lemaître, Répertoire, I, pp. 39–40. 14 The word martirologium and its variant martirologum were used at Mont-Saint-Michel in the thirteenth
century and later; MSS Avranches 214, part ii, fol. 197v (see Appendix), Avranches 215, fol. 174r. SeeJean-Loup Lemaître, Mourir à Saint-Martial: La commémoration des morts et les obituaires àSaint-Martial de Limoges du XIe au XIIIe siècle (Paris, 1989), ch. 3, pp. 87–103.
15 Note 1 above. 16 Charles Saraman, ‘Études sandionysiennes. II. Un nécrologe inédit de l’abbaye de Saint-Denis’,
Bibliothèque de l’École des chartes 104 (1943), 27–8.
17 Lemaître, Répertoire, I, 15–26, and Mourir à Saint-Martial, pp. 87–97, pointing out that the terms
necrology and obituary are post-medieval and were not used in medieval manuscripts. The mostcommonly used term in the Middle Ages was martirologium. The term derived from one of the constit-uent texts of a chapter book; in addition to its basic meaning referring to a martyrology (calendaredaccount of individual martyrs) it could mean ‘necrology’, and even ‘chapter book’ (Lemaître, ‘Libercapituli’, p. 627); cf. Appendix, no. 5 below.
professed monks of the house and their confratres (that is those who were in confra-ternity with them).
Both the Martryrology-Necrology and the larger Necrology in Avranches 214
have been correctly described by Lemaître as necrologies.18 The larger of the twotexts contains no details about the acts of remembrance or their endowment, and, sofar as can be seen, it normally aims to record an actual day of death. This means that itis indeed a necrology, and hence a liturgical text from which names were intended tobe read aloud on a daily basis, normally in the office of Chapter. Surviving Ordinariesand Ceremonials from the abbey show that there was a considerable emphasis onliturgy for the dead. With certain exceptions such as Easter and major feasts, an officeof the dead followed Prime. The morning mass was usually pro defunctis.19
The Martyrology-Necrology was copied in the time of Abbot Jordan in the early
thirteenth century and remained in use as part of the Chapter liturgy until the fifteenthcentury, as the numerous additions to the spaces marked Obierunt show. There was anattempt at hierarchy in the order of the obits, but this was frequently compromised bythe addition of names. The larger Necrology was produced up to twenty or thirty yearslater. It is very carefully written and beautifully laid out, observing a strict hierarchyamong the dead, from bishops through to women. There are far fewer later additionsto this text.
Additions to the Martyrology-Necrology were normally of the names of those who
had made gifts or grants of pittances to the monks. Eventually they led to the produc-tion of a third text, the fifteenth-century Obituary, which survives as Avranches,Bibliothèque Municipale, MS 215, fols. 159–75. This text contains the names oflaypersons who granted a pittance – a supplement to the monks’ table – to be servedon the anniversary of the grantor’s death, in return for acts of commemoration on thepart of the community.20 Since most of the names had previously been added to themargins of the Martyrology-Necrology, the main value of this text is that it addssupplementary details about gifts mentioned in the older text.21 There is in additionone other Mont text relating to the dead: a simple list written into a Fleury manuscriptin about 1000.22
The Necrology and Martyrology-Necrology in Avranches 214 differ greatly in
size and scope. Dom Laporte counted the names in the Necrology, including addi-tions, and gave a total of 7,648, of which 4,687 were monks, including 225 abbots.23The names of the dead recorded in the Martyrology-Necrology are probably less thana quarter as numerous as those in the Necrology, and are principally those of distin-guished monks of the abbey, i.e., abbots, priors, monks who became abbots of other
18 Lemaître, Répertoire, I, 288–9. 19 J. Lemarié, ‘La vie liturgique au Mont Saint-Michel d’après les ordinaires et le cérémonial de
l’abbaye’, Mill. mon., I, 300–52, at p. 327.
20 Lemaître, Mourir à Saint-Martial, ch. 17, ‘Les pitances, les moines et les pauvres’, pp. 457–71. 21 The information from this text is collated with the readings of the Martyrology-Necrology in my
edition. As is normal with such texts, it contains many fewer names than the old necrologies.
22 D. Gremont and L. Donnat, ‘Fleury, le Mont Saint-Michel et l’Angleterre à la fin du X et au début du XI
siècle à propos du manuscrit d’Orléans, no. 127 (105)’, Mill. mon., I, 751–93, and pl. XVI. Discussed inK. S. B. Keats-Rohan, ‘Francs, scandinaves ou normands? Aperçus sur les premiers moines desmonastères normands’, forthcoming in Les Fondations scandinaves et les débuts du duché deNormandie: Colloque de Cerisy-la-Salle (Septembre 2002), ed. Pierre Bauduin and Claude Lorren.
23 Jean Laporte, ‘Les obituaires du Mont Saint-Michel’, Mill. mon., I, 725–41.
houses, and so on.24 Only the abbots are entered as a matter of course: the others werea select gathering of men whom their brethren chose to single out for remembrance,mostly for reasons now irrecoverable. These monks are often distinguished with theunambiguous phrase monachus huius loci. Two were described as conuersus.25 TheMartyrology-Necrology also records the obits of the bishops of Avranches (and manyof the archbishops of Rouen and Dol), the counts and countesses of Normandy andBrittany, the kings and queens of England up to Henry III, and thereafter of France. Several of the early counts and countesses of Normandy and Brittany were among thechief benefactors of the abbey, the founders of their principal priories, as celebrated inthe Cartulary.
The Necrology, on the other hand, is mainly devoted to monks from other houses,
though it also includes nuns and lay-persons. A handful of abbots of the Mont andMont monks who became abbots of other houses are found here as well as in theMartyrology-Necrology; the same duplication is also apparent in a small number ofobits of Mont monks found in the Martyrology-Necrology.26 There is no obviouspattern to such duplication, nor are the number of cases large enough to suggest litur-gical significance. It is safest to assume that this limited duplication was a hazard ofwhat must have been an extremely complex process of amalgamating several oldnecrological records into a new one. Awareness of fallibility and its consequencesappears in a late addition to the Martyrology-Necrology where in the margin, against26 February (p. 34), we read: ‘Commemoratio omnium fratrum et sororum atqueparentum nostrorum qui per obliuionem uel per negligentiam in hoc libro nonscribuntur.’ Overall it is clear that a small and select group of professed monks of thehouse were entered into the Martyrology-Necrology, with monks from other housesbeing entered into the Necrology. Occasionally the text of the obit identifies thesubject as a monk of the house who left to become abbot elsewhere; occasionally theinformation can be supplied from external sources.27 The few cases that are left have
24 Laporte’s observation, ibid., p. 725, ‘Les notices jointes au martyrologe d’Usuard, . . . qui sont
reservées en principe aux abbés’, is misleading, though it was probably an error. There is no emphasison abbots in the text, but rather on membership, by profession or by confraternity, of the Mont commu-nity. Only 46 of the original entries refer to abbots; 18 of them were abbots of Mont-Saint-Michel and11 more can be shown to have been monks of the abbey before becoming abbots elsewhere. On p. 740he correctly observes: ‘ceux des moines du Mont dont les noms avaient été conservés se trouvaient nonpas dans l’Obituaire général [i.e. the Necrology], mais dans le Martyrologe’.
25 The later additions, which I ignore completely here, altered the character of the work by adding in the
obits of lay persons who had given pittances.
26 For example, Abbot Fromund (of Saint-Taurin d’Evreux) occurs on 8 January in both the Necrology
and the Martyrology-Necrology (on 11 January in the necrology of Saint-Taurin). In the same way,Abbot Heriward of Gembloux (d. 991) occurs in both texts on 3 May, as well as in the simple list ofc.1000 that went to Fleury. Much more difficult to distinguish are the names (to take just a few exam-ples), of the monks Robert (6 January), Benedict (21 January), Robert (24 January), Walter (29January) and Riculf (16 February), which occur in both Necrology and Martyrology-Necrology. Theseare common names and there may be no duplication involved. Given the starkness of the entries in thesetexts, it can be difficult to distinguish duplication from mere homonymity. The less commonly namedAbbot Lescelin who occurs in the Mont Necrology on 8 January provides an example. Pontoise remem-bered its abbot Lescelin on 8 January, but the Mont was not in confraternity with Pontoise (Cartulairede l’abbaye de Saint-Martin de Pontoise, ed. J. Depoin (2 vols., Pontoise, 1895–1901), I, 220). Theabbot Lescelin remembered at the Mont occurs also in the necrology of Saint-Germain (see note 45below) and is almost certainly identifiable with a disciple of William of Dijon who died as abbot ofSaint-Faron de Meaux in 1065. Although this case may be simply resolved, most are not.
27 Compare entries for two eleventh-century abbots, Touo, abbas S. Taurini et monachus, 15 July
(Avranches 214, p. 104), with one on 9 September (p. 136) for Scollandus abbas sancti Augustini. We
to be assumed to be monks from elsewhere whom the community had in some wayaccepted not merely as their own, but actually members of their own house (huiusloci). The Necrology and Martyrology-Necrology in Avranches 214: the rôle of confraternity
The distinction which was maintained between the two Mont necrologies is certainlyvery striking. It requires explanation, though the task is not simple.28 The names in theMartyrology-Necrology are overwhelmingly of professed monks of the Mont, withthe clear implication of a similar status being enjoyed by the handful of monks other-wise closely associated with another monastery, such as William of Dol, abbot ofSaint-Florent de Saumur.29 These exceptions cannot be explained simply in terms ofconfraternity, though probably all had been granted particular confraternity. Adistinction between monks of the monastery and those from outside it is found inother necrologies, but usually within the same document, not two quite separate onesas at the Mont. Cluniac houses, for instance, maintained distinctions betweenprofessed monks of the monastery and its dependencies – ‘monachi nostrecongregationis’ or ‘defunctorum nostrorum fratrum’ – and associated persons, bothmonks and lay – ‘amici tantum in orationem suscepti’ or ‘peregrini monachi’ – byentering names in different columns in their necrologies, or even by maintaining sep-arate entries on the recto and verso of each folio.30 Here a distinction is being main-tained between monks who live in Cluniac houses (nostre congregationis) and thosewho, even though in confraternity with them, were not Cluniacs (peregrini). The termnostre congregationis was in general use to identify the professed monks of a monas-tery and its dependencies, and their brethren ad succurrendum.31 It was used by themonasteries associated with William of Dijon (discussed below), even though therewas no formal link of any sort between them.32 Similar systems can be seen in otherNorman necrologies such as those of Saint-Taurin d’Evreux, Jumièges, andSaint-Evroul.33 There is only limited evidence for Mont confraternities before thedate of the necrologies in Avranches 214, that is before c.1220, and the evidence of
know from other sources, including the Mont monk and poet William de Saint-Pair, that Scolland was amonk of the abbey. The phrase et monachus added to the name of Tovo, abbot of Saint-Taurind’Evreux, was intended to mark him as a professed monk of the house. Compare 14 October (p. 155),‘Norgodus episcopus Abrincatensis et postea monachus huius loci’.
28 It was very unusual. Cf. Lemaître, ‘Liber capituli’, p. 633. 29 Occurs in the Martyrology-Necrology on 30 May (he died in 1118). Both his predecessors occur in the
Necrology, Sigo (d. 1070) on 12 June and Frederick (d. 1055) on 27 September. William was son ofRivallon I of Dol-Combour and, like his father and brothers, was a benefactor of Mont-Saint-Michel(Cartulary, nos. 18, 41, 44). Rivallon had obtained confraternity for himself, his wife and their childrenin an agreement with Abbot Suppo of c.1050 (Cartulary, Appendix ii.4). Saint-Florent de Saumur hadconfraternity with the Mont (Appendix, no. 3, below).
30 Lemaître, Répertoire, I, 21–3, an edition of the customs of Cluny, written c.1042/3 by the monk John of
Apulia, and p. 44; idem, ‘L’inscription dans les nécrologes clunisiens XIe–XIIe siècle’, in La Mort auMoyen Age (Strasbourg, 1978), pp. 153–67.
31 Lemaître, Répertoire, I, pp. 17–20. 32 E.g. the necrology of Saint-Germain (note 45 below). 33 Paris, BN, MS nov. acq. lat. 1899 (Saint-Taurin); Rouen, Bibliothèque municipale, MS 1226 (U 50)
(Jumièges), and Paris, BN, MS lat. 10062 (Saint-Évroul). These are among the necrologies collatedwith the Mont necrologies in my edition.
subsequent confraternities is of limited help in explaining even the later additions tothese texts. The Martyrology-Necrology principally contains the names of monks ofthe Mont, but like the Necrology it too contains the names of monks from housescertainly associated with the Mont in confraternity after 1220 and probably, in manycases, before.34
The calendars of both texts contain general commemorations for quite different
confraternities. The Martyrology-Necrology and the Necrology are therefore notinterchangeable and were in use at the same time. In the case of the Martyrology-Necrology many entries are specified as abbas/prior/monachus huius loci, and thestart of each day’s entry is marked huius loci throughout. These entries are the equiva-lent of the entries marked monachi nostre congregationis in other necrologies; all hadat some time in their lives enjoyed an intimacy with the community of Mont-Saint-Michel that distinguished them from others. The Necrology, on the other hand, isclearly intended to contain the name of confratres and familiares, reflecting theperegrini monachi of the Cluniacs. This can be determined in two ways. First, inseveral entries relating to monks who died after the mid-twelfth century the name isfollowed by a toponym indicating the monastery to which he had belonged. Sincethese were all houses known to have been in confraternity with the Mont, the effectwas to identify these monks as having a particular confraternity as members of aparticular community, in addition to their general confraternity as individuals, withthe Mont. Secondly, there is a series of mostly later additions to the text as written bythe first hand which specify the entries as nostre congregationis monachi,35 or in thecase of lay-persons, the phrases frater noster and soror nostra. The clarity of thedistinction between the two necrologies remains undimmed, despite the fact that itwas in each case compromised by the additions made from the fourteenth centuryonward.
Analysis of the cartulary texts produces a list of donors who made gifts on
becoming monks of the abbey, or who made gifts when they requested confraternityand mortuary prayers. It is not easy to determine whether the names of these donorswere listed in the Martyrology-Necrology or Necrology, because they unfortunatelyhad very common names like Ranulf or William, which is unhelpful when searchingnecrologies where a person is normally reduced to his or her first name and deprivedof any other distinguishing mark, except perhaps a note of lay status. There are onlyfive cases where the first name is sufficiently unusual to permit the observation thatthat name is found only in the Necrology, in two cases only once, including the nameof Gelduin laicus which occurs on 10 August.36 Only one of the Cartulary charterscontained a request to be entered into a necrology as well as for confraternity.37 In late
34 See Appendix, no. 3. 35 Not to be confused with the normal use of this phrase, which was the equivalent of the phrase monachushuius loci used in the Mont’s Martyrology-Necrology.
36 The following charters demand fraternity or burial rights: nos. 29, 34, 41, 44, 51, 66, 73–4, 86–7, 110.
Those with unusual names match only entries in the necrology, viz: Theoderic laicus 11 November,Restald monachus 12 August, 11 October and 7 November, Balduin laicus 1 March, 21 May, 19 July,10 September, Gelduin laicus 10 August, Hersendis femina 25 July, 26 December.
37 ‘. . . quod quando hominem exiero. et dies obitus mei euenerit. supradicti monachi sancti Michaelis me
ad Montem deferent. et sicut fratrem suum honestissime et honorifice me sepelient atque tumulabunt. etin Kalendario inter suos familiares propter memoriam anniuersarii mei nomen meum scribent’,Cartulary, no. 87.
1141 or 1142, Gelduin fitz Odo of Aucey made his gift on condition that when heshould die, the monks would take him to the Mont for burial and write his nameamong their familares in their necrology (Kalendarium) for annual remembrance. This tends to corroborate Lemaître’s conclusion that the necrologies of Saint-Martialde Limoges rarely contain the names of persons who had requested remembrance inthe monks’s necrologies, the original record being deemed to have served that func-tion for all time, in the same way as the annual blanket commemorations for ‘ourbrothers’, ‘our benefactors’, and so on.38
Although there is plenty of evidence indicating the solemnity with which the death
of a brother was treated by his own community as well as by those of his confraterni-ties,39 it is far from evident that a dead brother’s name was automatically entered intothe necrology of his community’s chapter book. Even allowing for the dropping ofsome names each time a fresh necrology was copied, it is clear that more monks livedand died than were commemorated in the surviving necrologies of their communitiesor their confraternities. Notices of death were often circulated in the form of breves,scraps of writing which in theory were kept at the monasteries to which they weresent, but of which in practice none survives.40 For many monks, the preservation oftheir memory as named individuals was as ephemeral as the brevis which announcedtheir deaths to their confratres. As with the Martyrology-Necrology, a place amongthose whose names would be read aloud from the Necrology had to be earned by a lifeof special merit, which could include the grant of a major benefaction to the commu-nity. Somewhat ironically, far from being an impersonal mass of names from whichmost distinguishing features have been stripped, necrologies are as much as anythinga celebration of the lives of exceptional individuals.
Orléans, Bibliothèque Municipale, MS 127 (105) is a sacramentary written at
Ramsey abbey (Huntingdonshire, England) by a former monk of Winchcombe(Gloucestershire, England), for use at Fleury-sur-Loire.41 On its way to Fleury itstopped at the Mont where the names of forty monks who had died before c.1000, andthose of fifty then still-living members of the community, were written into it.42 Sincethis list belongs to a period before the abbey was swamped by Normans with a verylimited range of personal names, the names in it, which are almost all Frankish, haverelatively few duplicates. Of names of those who died before about 1000 two areinstantly recognisable as Abbot Mainard I of the Mont and Heriward, a Mont monkwho became abbot of Gembloux, both of whom died in 991.43 The names of all thedead monks who died before 1000 were later copied into the Martyrology-Necrology. Amongst the names of monks living when the list was made, the identities of thosewith distinctive names can for the most part also be established from their subsequentobits in the Martyrology-Necrology. They include three future abbots of the Mont,
38 Lemaître, Mourir à Saint-Martial, pp. 355ff. 39 He was always awarded a trental (Avranches 214, part II, p. 259); see Appendix, nos. 1 and 4, below. 40 Lemaître, Mourir à Saint-Martial, pp. 323ff. 41 Anselme Davril, The Winchombe Sacramentary (Henry Bradshaw Society 109; London, 1990). The
circumstances in which the list was written are discussed in Gremont and Donnat, ‘Fleury, le MontSaint-Michel et l’Angleterre à la fin du X et au début du XI siècle à propos du manuscrit d’Orléans, no. 127 (105)’, Mill. mon., I, 751–93. The list of monks is reproduced there, on Plate XIV, opposite p. 737.
42 According to J. J. G. Alexander, the scribe was Heriward, the copyist of an initial in the Corbie Psalter:
‘Une copie montoise d’initiale romane’, Mill. mon., II, 239–44.
43 Gremont and Donat, in Mill. mon., I, 783–4.
viz. Hildebert I, Hildebert II and Almod, and a well-known Mont scribe of the latetenth century who shared the forename of the man who was no doubt his relative,Abbot Heriward of Gembloux. The scribe in question was the Heriward who copiedthe list into the Fleury manuscript.44
The necrology of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris contains seven names of monks
from Mont-Saint-Michel, marked nostre congregationis.45 All of them are found inthe Mont Martyrology-Necrology.46 As was first established by Niethard Bulst, thesenames date from the era of William of Dijon, abbot of Fécamp, and his pupils andsuccessors in other monasteries, including Mont-Saint-Michel.47 Andrea Decker-Hauer considers these entries in the Mont Martyrology-Necrology to be associatedwith the entries in the Saint-Germain necrology of three monks of Jumièges andsuggests that all should in turn be associated with the entry of the name of Theoderic(d. 1027), a pupil of William of Dijon who became prior of Fécamp and abbot of bothJumièges and Mont-Saint-Michel.48 Many of the entries in the Mont’s Necrologyrelate to this network of Fécampois monks of the first half of the eleventh century.49They can be identified by comparison with necrologies from Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, Saint-Martial de Limoges, San Savino in Piacenza andSaint-Arnoul of Metz, among others. It is striking that the Fécampois circle estab-lished by William of Dijon and accepted during his lifetime (and to some extent thatof John, his successor at Fécamp) as nostre congregationis by its member-monasteries was subject to strict distinctions at Mont-Saint-Michel, where the namesof the non-Mont monks – such as the three Jumièges monks just mentioned – werewritten into the precursor of the Necrology, rather than the precursor of theMartyrology-Necrology. Even in the Cluniac necrologies, like that of Saint-Martial,these monks occur among those listed as nostre congregationis (i.e. the equivalent ofthe monachi huius loci of the Mont Martyrology-Necrology). At Mont-Saint-Michelan exception was made for William of Dijon himself, and his immediate successor atFécamp, John, who both occur in the Martyrology-Necrology. The names from thistime are especially interesting because the forcible introduction of monks from thecircle of William of Dijon into the community of the Mont led to deep divisionsthere.50 The first of them was Thierry, abbot of Jumièges who was appointed abbot ofthe Mont in 1023 and who died only four years later, in 1027, at Jumièges. An attemptto replace him with a senior monk of their own community, Almod, was eventuallythwarted when he was dismissed by Richard II of Normandy and another of Williamof Dijon’s pupils, the Italian Suppo, was appointed in 1033. He was driven out, in1048, by a faction of the monks, though his remaining supporters considered his
44 J. J. G. Alexander, ‘Une copie montoise d’initiale romane’, Mill. mon., II, 241. 45 Edited, with facsimile, in Andrea Decker-Heuer, Studien zur Memorialüberlieferung imfrühmittelalterlichen Paris (Beihefte der Francia 40; Sigmaringen, 1998), pp. 297–352.
46 Robert, Joseph and Dodo on 6, 18 and 20 January respectively, Andreas on 2 February, Richard on 4
April, Litbran on 8 August, and David on 1 November.
47 The fundamental account is Neithard Bulst, Untersuchungen zu den Klosterreformen Wilhelms vonDijon (962–1031) (Pariser Historische Studien 11; Bonn, 1973).
48 Decker-Hauer, Studien, pp. 123–4. 49 See above, n. 38. An important re-evaluation of William of Dijon (also known as de Volpiano) by
Véronique Gazeau, ‘Guillaume de Volpiano en Normandie – état de question’, has been published inTabularia [www.unicaen.fr/mrsh/crahm/revue/tabularia].
50 Cf. Jean Laporte, ‘L’abbaye aux X et XI siècles’, Mill. mon., I, 71–2.
successor Ralph as a simoniac because Suppo lived until 1061, evidently withouthaving resigned his abbacy. Despite the factionalism and bitterness of these years,William’s reform left a lasting legacy in the form of a transformation of the liturgyafter the mid-eleventh century.51 An entry in the Martyrology-Necrology shows thatthe links between the monks of William’s several communities were more than themere exchange of breves at the time of a brother’s death. The obit of Anschitillus on19 October was also recorded at Saint-Bénigne, where it was noted that Ansquetil hadbeen buried there.52
Avranches 214 contains a list, written about 1400, of the abbeys with which the
Mont had formed associations or confraternities both during the thirteenth and four-teenth centuries and much earlier (part I, p. 197). These were general confraternities,that is they embraced all members, present and future, of each reciprocating commu-nity, by means of an accord established by the abbots. Particular confraternity waslimited to a single individual, negotiated by the abbot with the consent of the chapter,since a confrater gained the right to become a full member of the community.53Confraternity is of central importance to the study of necrologies because its mostbasic function was to confer the benefits of prayers for the dead upon its members.54Originally, this was all that confraternity conferred, but there evolved further possi-bilities, such as the right of confratres to enter each other’s choir and chapter. Severalof the abbeys listed had very ancient links with the Mont, though not necessarilythrough confraternity per se. Cluny and Marmoutier, for example, both of whichappear in the later confraternity lists, figure in a charter preserved in the Cartulary bywhich Maiol, then abbot of both houses, granted in about 982 a vineyard at Mortiers,near Tours, at the request of the Mont’s abbot Mainard I. The gift was symbolic of theBenedictine ‘brotherhood’ between the three monasteries.55 Cluny is first on the listof abbeys in Avranches 214, where the scribe introduced a number of section headersto indicate that he is representing the situation as best he can, following the destruc-tion by fire of the deeds of confraternity.56 The list has been compiled from varioussources, including old necrologies (per antiquos martirologos) and a new necrology(novo martirologio), which included Cerne and Abbotsbury (built for monks of Cernein 1044) in Dorset, England. None of these sources can be securely identified witheither the Martyrology-Necrology or the Necrology in Avranches 214. Some of thelinks with other abbeys were formed some while after the date at which the Necrologywas copied and are therefore not particularly helpful as clues identifying individuals
51 R. Le Roux, ‘Guillaume de Volpiano: son cursus liturgique au Mont-Saint-Michel et dans les abbayes
normandes’, Mill. mon., I, 417–72.
52 ‘Ansetillus de Monte Sancti Michaelis, hic sepultus’ (B. Schamper, Saint-Béninge de Dijon:Untersuchungen zum Necrolog der Handschrift Bibl. mun. de Dijon, ms 634 (MünsterscheMittelalter-Schriften 63; Munich, 1979) p. 78); Avranches 214, part II, p. 157.
53 Jean Chazelas, ‘La vie monastique au Mont Saint-Michel au XIIIe siècle’, Mill. mon., I, 129. Lemaître,
Mourir à Saint-Martial, pp. 355ff.
54 See Appendix, no. 1, below. 55 Cartulary, no. 32; cf. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan, ‘Une charte de l’Abbé Mayeul de Cluny et la Réforme de
l’abbaye de Mont-Saint-Michel’, in La Normandie autour de l’an mil, ed. F. de Beaurepaire and J.-P. Chaline (Société de l’Histoire de Normandie, 2000), pp. 159–70.
56 Avranches 214, part I, p. 197: see below, Appendix, no. 3. Much the same, though a shorter, list occurs
in a fourteenth-century entry in MS Avranches 211, fol. 137v. The first five abbeys on the earlier list areCluny, Fleury, Saint-Pierre-de-la-Couture, Saint-Jouin de Marnes and St Peter’s, Bath. The later listbegins with Fleury and Saint-Florent de Saumur.
named in it. Moreover, there was clearly considerable variation from monastery tomonastery as to how, or even whether, the names of individuals belonging to commu-nities in confraternity with it were entered into its necrologies. Indeed, it is notuncommon for monastic necrologies and obituaries to contain few entries for indi-vidual members of such confraternities,57 which benefited from the sort of blanketcommemoration for their members that we have seen in the Martrology-Necrology. Entries for individuals from these communities were only made to indicate the grantto those individuals of an additional, particular confraternity.
Seven confraternities are evidenced in the Necrology by the blanket commemora-
tions of their monks assigned to certain days in the calendar. Three of the monasterieswere in England, and two in Angers, in addition to Saint-Bénigne de Dijon andSaint-Médard de Soissons. The English abbeys included Gloucester, Bath, andColchester but not St Mary’s, York, which is not listed in any of the confraternity lists,despite the fact that Janet Burton has demonstrated conclusively that a confraternitywith the Mont existed during the twelfth century.58 Also absent is Hyde Abbey inWinchester, where the monks are also known to have prayed for those of Mont-Saint-Michel.59 As with Gloucester, this association went back to the NormanConquest, when four monks from the Mont became abbots in England: the priorRivallon became abbot of Hyde, the treasurer and scribe Scolland, abbot of St Augus-tine’s, Canterbury, Serlo, a former canon of Avranches, abbot of Gloucester, andWilliam d’Agon, abbot of Cerne.60
All these abbeys occur on the late twelfth-century confraternity list of St Mary’s,
York.61 Could it be that one or more monks from Mont-Saint-Michel joined thecommunity at York at the time of its refoundation in the 1080s? St Mary’s abbey wasrefounded after the Norman Conquest on the site of an earlier church dedicated to themartyred King Olaf of Norway.62 Though the cult of Olaf was strong in Norway andBritain, it was virtually unheard of in France, despite his alleged baptism at Rouen. The fact that Mont-Saint-Michel was long the possessor of a relic of him is mosteasily explained as material evidence of the confraternity between its monks andthose of St Mary, York.63 The prime movers and principal patrons of the latter monas-tery were the early lords of Richmond, the king’s cousins Counts Alan and Stephen. Acharter for the abbey given by Count Stephen was attested by Roland, archbishop ofDol, Stephen, the first abbot of St Mary and Hamo ‘Sancti Michaelis monachi’, inwhom, given the association with Roland of Dol, we are entitled to see a monk ofMont-Saint-Michel.64 Around 1160 Stephen’s grandson, Conan IV of Brittany,confirmed for the soul of his father the grants his ancestors had made to St Michael in
57 Cf. A. Vidier, L’Historiographie à l’abbaye de Saint-Benoît (Paris, 1975), p. 118. 58 Janet Burton, ‘A Confraternity List from St Mary’s, York’, Revue bénédictine 89 (1989), 325–33; and
below, pp. 223–4. I am very grateful to Dr Burton for copies of both these papers.
59 LVH Birch, p. 52. 60 Avranches 213, fol. 178r (printed PL 202, col. 1326B). 61 Burton, ‘Confraternity List’, p. 330. 62 Janet Burton, ‘The Monastic Revival in Yorkshire: Whitby and St Mary’s, York’, in A-ND, pp. 41–51. 63 Dubois, ‘Le trésor des reliques’, in Mill. mon., I, 531. B. Dickens, ‘The Cult of St Olave in the British
Isles’, Sagabook of the Viking Society 12 (1937–45), 53–80.
64 Early Yorkshire Charters, IV: The Honour of Richmond, ed. William Farrer and Charles Clay (York-
shire Archaeological Society; Huddersfield, 1935), no. 4. Several monks named Haimo occur in theMont Martyrology-Necrology.
Peril of the Sea of the church of Wath (Yorkshire, North Riding, England).65 Hisfather, Alan III the Black of Richmond, had made a grant to the Mont priory at StMichael’s Mount in Cornwall for the soul of his uncle Count Brien.66 Counts Brienand Conan and Archbishop Roland occur in the Mont’s necrologies.67 It is perhapssignificant that it was in the time of Abbot Stephen of York (c.1080–1112) that twelvemonks and Prior Hugh went from St Mary’s, York, to settle the newly foundedmonastery of St John at Colchester.68 This abbey enjoyed a privileged position at StMary’s, York, where its monks were regarded as nostre congregationis and given thesame rights as professed monks of St Mary.69 Mont-Saint-Michel lost its property andinfluence in Yorkshire in the first half of the thirteenth century, but perhaps its earlierconfraternity with St Mary’s was still reflected in its confraternity with St John’s,Colchester.70
The confraternity list of St Mary’s, York, affords a number of insights into the
Martyrology-Necrology and Necrology of Avranches 214. As we have seen, therewere degrees of confraternity, from a basic promise of mortuary prayers up to theadmission of an individual or a whole community to the rights of a professed monk ofthe admitting community. Records were kept of anniversaries in the obituary of themonastery which had granted the petition of confraternity. Such records could also berecorded in deeds, littera, like those destroyed by fire at the Mont.71 St Mary’s, York,held a general anniversary, including the Mont, for all those in confraternity with it,but it had also granted a particular confraternity conferring the rights of a professedmonk to Prior Hugh of Mont-Saint-Michel.72 He may have been the prior of that namewho appears in charters of Abbot Bernard in the period 1142 to 1149 preserved in theCartulary.73 Hugo prior occurs on 28 August and on 17 December in theMartyrology-Necrology.
Aside from St Mary’s York, evidence survives for another confraternity, this one a
four-way affair. In the Martyrology-Necrology of the Mont the following commemo-ration is noted in the margin against 10 May: ‘Commemoratio fratrum nostrorumVezeliensium et Cluniacensium et Clunicensium pro una quaque harumcongregationum debentur dari elemosine .xxx. panes videlicet .iiiixx. et x panesannuatim ad istam diem.’ An entry in Robert of Torigny’s Chronicle for 1172 explainsthis arrangement as the result of an assembly of Norman and Breton bishops and papallegates who convened at the Mont for the reconciliation of Henry II with the Church,following the murder of Thomas Becket.74 Among the visitors brought to the abbey
65 Early Yorkshire Charters, IV, nos. 54 and 72. 66 Ibid., no. 12. 67 Conan IV occurs on 20 February in the Necrology; Count Brien occurs on 14 February in the
68 D. Knowles and C. N. L. Brooke, Heads of Religious Houses, 940–1216 (Cambridge, 1976), p. 40. 69 Burton, as in note 58 above. 70 For the situation in Yorkshire see D. Matthew, ‘Mont-Saint-Michel and England’, Mill. mon., I, 683–5. 71 According to Dom Jean Huynes, Histoire générale de l’abbaye du Mont Saint-Michel au péril de lamer, publié par Eugène de Robillard de Beaurepaire (2 vols., Rouen, 1872–3), I, 179, and II, 180, therewere major fires at the Mont in 1212, after the death of Abbot Jordan, and in 1300.
72 The Ordinal and Customary of the Abbey of Saint Mary, York, ed. Abbess of Stanbrook and J. B. L.
Tolhurst (Henry Bradshaw Society 73, 75, 84; 3 vols., 1936–51), III, 373, 375. Burton, ‘ConfraternityList’, p. 332: ‘Pro Hugone priore sancti Michaelis de periculo maris faciemus sicut de nostris.’
73 Cartulary, nos. 83, 87, 91, 93, 99. 74 Chronique de Robert de Torigni . . . suivie de divers opuscules historiques de cet auteur, ed. L. Delisle
were Stephen, abbot of Cluny, and Benedict, abbot of La Cluse (San Michele dellaChiusa, Piedmont, Italy). Confraternity agreements were made between the threeabbeys, and Stephen and Benedict took letters of fraternity away with them.75 Robertgoes on to say that such an arrangement was also made in the chapter at Vézelay byAbbot William, so that Mont monks held direct brotherhood with the monks of allthree abbeys, an arrangement as pleasing to them as to Robert and his monks. Muchmore, surely, lies behind these confraternity arrangements than is immediatelyapparent. There were intimate links between these houses. Links between Mont-Saint-Michel and Cluny went back at least as early as 982, to the charter of Abbot Maiol, andprobably earlier. La Cluse was a cell of Cluny which had been founded by a count ofAuvergne, grandfather of Maurice II de Montboissier, two of whose numerous sonswere Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny (1122–56), and Pons, abbot of Vézelay(1138–61), the latter a former monk of La Cluse. Vézelay, another Burgundian house,first founded by Gérard de Roussillon in the ninth century, had had a chequeredhistory which included a much resented and resisted form of submission to Cluny anda protracted rivalry with the bishops of Autun. By 1166 Abbot William of Vézelay hadthe upper hand and finally obtained freedom from Cluny as a result of his friendshipwith Pope Alexander III, whom he loyally supported in the schism that had followedthe pope’s election in September 1159. The Vézelay Chronicle shows that AbbotStephen of Cluny loathed Abbot William and refused to meet him in 1166 during avisit to Vézelay that had been intended to draw a line under the affair.76 The curiousentry in Robert of Torigny’s chronicle strongly suggests that Robert and his monksoffered confraternity agreements as part of an attempt at reconciliation between theother abbeys. The agreement with Vézelay, as suggested by the order in thecommemoratio, was the first in the series, since William, described by Torigny as piememorie, died in 1171 and was replaced by Gerard.77 All three abbeys occur (separ-ately) in the defective fraternity list written in 1326 and preserved in Avranches 211.78
The Necrology and Martyrology-Necrology in Avranches 214: how they were used
Now that the distinction maintained between the Martyrology-Necrology and theNecrology in Avranches 214 has been explored, it remains to discover how they wereused. As we have seen, the Martyrology-Necrology remembered monks of Mont-Saint-Michel, those monks regarded as huius loci, and certain key lay benefactors
(2 vols., Rouen, 1872–3), II, 41; the confraternity agreement beteen Robert of Torigny and Stephen ofCluny is printed from pp. 294–5 (no. XXX) in Appendix, no. 1, below. For Stephen’s promotion toCluny, ibid., I, 338.
75 See Appendix, no. 1, below. 76 Full information on the history of these abbeys, and the events described in this paragraph, is given in
the introduction to the following: John Scott and John O. Ward, Hugh of Poitiers, The Vézelay Chron-icle and other Documents from MS Auxerre 227 and Elsewhere, translated into English with Notes,Introduction, and Accompanying Material (New York, 1992); and A.-A. Chérest, ‘Vézelay. Étudehistorique IV’, in Monumenta Vizeliacensia: Textes relatifs à l’histoire de l’abbaye de Vézelay, ed. R. B. C. Huygens (Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Medievalis 42; 2 vols., Turnhout, 1980–2), p. 60,and ‘Chronique de l’abbaye de Vézelay, par Hughes le Poitevin’, ed. Huygens, ibid., p. 604.
77 William occurs in the Mont Necrology on 14 February. Neither Stephen of Cluny nor Benedict of La
Cluse occurs in either of the Mont necrologies.
78 Fol. 137v, also described as based upon defective records. See also Appendix, no. 3, below.
such as the early counts of Brittany and Normandy, and the later kings and queens ofFrance, many of the former being the founders of the priories celebrated in theCartulary. The Necrology contained the names of all those nostre congregationis heldin confraternity, general and particular. The daily reading aloud of the names of thedead happened in the office of Chapter, which normally followed Prime. The officebegan with a reading from the Martyrology, followed by a chapter from the Rule of StBenedict, or from the Gospels, depending upon the calendar, and concluded with thereading of the names of the dead.79 The development of the Chapter Book in general,and of the Martyrology-Necrology in particular, is easy to understand, since it madejuggling with the various texts in a confined space much easier for the reader. It wasnot just the question of space that tried the skill of the reader; he was obliged to readthe names in a strict hierarchical order, starting with popes and ending withlaywomen.80 This would have presented a challenge in most necrologies, since thefrequent addition of names meant that the hierarchical order had continually to bereconstructed. In the case of Mont-Saint-Michel, there were not one but two compila-tions (the Martyrology-Necrology and the Necrology), together containing the sameinformation as was found together in the necrologies of other houses, even wherethese maintained a distinction between professed monks and confratres or familiares. The combined entries from each compilation did not in fact yield an impossibly largenumber of names; it was somewhere between thirty and forty for most days. This iscomparable to the figure for Saint-Martial, but a far cry from the 120 names found onsome days in the necrology of Saint-Martin-des-Champs.81 The number of names inthe Martyrology-Necrology, even after it began to be swamped with later additions,was on average about a quarter as large as those for the same day in the Necrology. This was a marked contrast to the necrologies of Saint-Martial, where monachi nostriwere in the overwhelming majority over peregrini monachi.82 Confraternity wastherefore of considerable importance to the Mont monks, so important that an unusu-ally ‘particular’ form of individual confraternity seems to have been extended to somepersons. They were recorded among the monachi huius loci in the Martyrology-Necrology rather than among the confratres in the Necrology. Neither theMartyrology-Necrology nor the Necrology displays signs of wear arising frommanipulation, such as would have been inevitable if the unfortunate reader had beenexpected to flip from one to the other and back again as he tried to recreate the hier-archy of the day’s dead. In view of everything we have learned so far, it is as incon-ceivable that only one of them was drawn upon for the daily commemoration ofChapter, as it is that the lector could have handled both texts simultaneously. Justhow, then, were these texts used?
Fortunately, the question can be answered from another of the texts now bound in
with these Chapter Book texts in Avranches 214, namely the Ceremonial (p. 201). This text was written in the early fifteenth century, but the liturgical practice itdescribes went back essentially to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. There are twopassages of particular interest, both of them edited in the appendix below. The first
79 Lemaître, ‘Liber Capituli’, pp. 628–37. 80 Cf. Lemaître, Mourir à Saint-Martial, pp. 312–14. 81 Cited by Jean-Loup Lemaître in discussion of a paper in L’Église et la mémoire, p. 126. 82 Lemaître, Mourir à Saint-Martial, pp. 293–311.
describes the offices of Prime and then of Chapter. The second describes the duties ofthe different members of the community. The section on the office of Chapter showsthat the names of the dead were indeed read aloud in Chapter, by a novice (iuvenis)who had earlier been assigned the task by the cantor. This differs from the Customaryof Cluny of the time of Abbot Odilon (994–1049), in which the reader was designatedas a child: ‘Ad capitulum sic pronuntietur infans . . .’83 At the Mont it was obviously anovice already advanced in monastic life who peformed the task: ‘et iuvenis facienstabulam accepta benedictione a illo magistro ordinis legat kalendam, scilicet de festissanctorum de sequentie die [. . .] et post legat ille frater mortuos de die sequenti sicutscriptum est in martirologo’.84 The word tabula occurs not infrequently in the Cere-monial, and has more than one meaning based upon the idea of listing rotation oralternation. Essentially it refers to a duty roster; here the phrase ‘iuvenis facienstabulam’ means ‘the novice on duty, whose turn it is’. It also refers to written lists. Akey passage in the Ceremonial shows that lists were prepared for the daily commemo-ration of dead persons, whose names were recorded in a strict hierarchy: ‘Parviebdomadarii faciunt tabulas mortuorum . . . scribendo in una tabula primo illos dequibus habemus pictanciam qui erunt in illis diebus scripti in martirologo uelcollectariis, ponendo et primo reges – si qui fuerint – et reginas et episcopos etabbates, fratres, et post clericos, laicos et feminas, et post illos de congregationeponendo similiter per ordinem.’85 Note that this information is gathered from at leasttwo sources (martirologo vel collectariis) and then ordered into two distinct, hierar-chically arranged groups contained in a single list. There is no doubt, therefore, thatthe information maintained before the late thirteenth century distinguishing thoseremembered as huius loci in the Martyrology-Necrology from those remembered asde congregatione (i.e. confratres) in the Necrology, was collated in a strictly orderedlist (tabula mortuorum) for daily use in the office of Chapter. This is very importantinformation about the community, and it is a precious addition to the limited knowl-edge we have so far of the organisation of Chapter liturgy in general. Names in the Martryology-Necrology and Necrology in Avranches 214
Although the number of persons identifiable in the necrologies is just a smallpercentage of the total, it is not insignificant. The entries easiest to identify are thoseof abbots, for whom there may well be datable obits (records of death) in places otherthan mortuary records, such as chronicles. Analysis of the identity of the abbotsrecorded in the Necrology is typically revealing. There are no abbots from Normanmonasteries earlier than the eleventh century. Overwhelmingly the most importantlink is with the abbey of Redon in Brittany, a link that can also be seen in other typesof documents. Many of the abbots of Redon from Conwoion onwards are named inthe Mont necrologies. Conwoion, who died on 1 May 868, occurs in the Necrology,but three others, Almod, Ivo, and Silvester, also occur in the Martyrology-Necrology,indicating their status de nostris among the monks of Mont-Saint-Michel.86 Redon
83 Lemaître, ibid., p. 312. 84 See in full Appendix, no. 6. 85 See further Appendix, no. 5. 86 Almod (d. 1083) occurs on 5 September, Ivo (d. post 1157) on 18 November, and Silvester (d. 1169) on
occurs as Abbatia Sancti Saluatoris in one of the (defective) confraternity lists ofMont-Saint-Michel.87 According to a set of annals from the abbey of Redon,preserved in a fifteenth-century manuscript of Mont-Saint-Michel, the Mont’s abbotMainard II, who was deposed in 1009 by Richard II of Normandy, was simulta-neously abbot of Redon, where he later died.88 Another house of special importancewas Fleury, with two eleventh-century abbots occurring in the Martyrology-Necrology, reserved for monks of the Mont.89 So too was Marmoutier, severaleleventh- and twelfth-century abbots of which were remembered in the Necrology.90Among the most prominent named monasteries from the late tenth or early eleventhcentury were Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Saint-Aubin d’Angers, and La Couture in LeMans.
The presence or absence in the Martyrology-Necrology and the Necrology of the
names of abbots from the great monasteries in the region later known as Normandy isa particularly striking instance of how these compilations can offer insight into thedevelopment of the Mont’s community. The Mont can be shown to have had closelinks with the abbey of Saint-Ouen de Rouen from at least the 980s and probablybefore, but its earliest recorded obit of an abbot from Normandy is that for Roderic,abbot of Jumièges (d. 1000), who was not widely remembered.91 Indeed, none of theMont’s records relating to the dead of Norman monasteries predates the era when theMont was forced unwillingly into the Fécamp-Jumièges orbit formed by William ofDijon. William had stipulated that all of the monasteries attached to him and hisfollowers should circulate and record necrological information. As Niethard Bulst hasshown, however, with the death of the last Fécampois abbot, Ralph, in the 1050s, allthe monasteries involved, including the Mont, abruptly ceased to collect from orcontribute material to these Fécampois necrologies.92 The most noticeable gaps in theMont Necrology are in its obits of abbots from Fécamp, Jumièges, and Saint-Bénignede Dijon from the mid-eleventh to the mid-twelfth century.
Writing before the abdication of Richard II of Normandy in 1025, Dudo of
St-Quentin had alleged that Richard I of Normandy raised buildings for the monks of
87 Avranches, Bibliothèque municipale, MS 211, fol. 137v. 88 ‘Eodem tempore sub Gaufrido, Conani filio, Mainardus abbas Rothoniense monasterium et abbatiam
sancti Michaelis de Periculo maris optime rexit sed, Rothoniense vivens, dimisit’, Annales deSaint-Sauveur de Redon, ed. Ph. Labbe, Nova bibliotheca manuscriptorum, I (Paris, 1675), p. 250; PL202, col. 1326B. These annals are preserved in a fifteenth-century copy in a Mont manuscript,Avranches 213, fol. 178. See Hubert Guillotel, ‘Le premier siècle du pouvoir ducal breton’, in Actes du103e Congrès national des Sociétés Savantes, Nancy-Metz 1977, Section de philologie et d’histoirejusqu’à 1610 (Paris, 1979), p. 83.
89 Gauzlin (d. 1030), occurs on 16 June, and Joscerann (d. 1095) on 7 April. 90 It is easier to be sceptical of Laporte’s identification (‘les Obituaires’, p. 736) of the abbots Vivian and
Hubert, named together on 5 September, with the lay abbots of Marmoutier who died in 851 and 864respectively, than to propose alternative identifications.
91 Mathieu Arnoux, ‘Before the Gesta Normannorum and beyond Dudo: Some Evidence on Early
Norman Historiography’, Anglo-Norman Studies 22 (2000), 29–48. The links with Saint-Ouen arediscussed in Keats-Rohan, ‘Francs, scandinaves ou normands?’. Cf. Lucien Musset, ‘Le satyristeGarnier de Rouen et son milieu’, Revue du Moyen Age latin 10 (1954), 237–66. Roderic was remem-bered at Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Mont-Saint-Michel and Jumièges.
92 N. Bulst, ‘La réforme monastique en Normandie. Étude prosopographique sur la diffusion et
l’implantation de la réforme de Guillaume de Dijon’, in Les Mutations socio-culturelles au tournantdes XIe–XIIe siècles, Études Anselmiennes (IVe Session) (Paris, 1984), pp. 323–4. I have collatedseveral of these necrologies with the Mont necrologies for my edition of the latter.
Mont-Saint-Michel, who were compelled to follow strict observance of the Rule.93 Inthe mid-eleventh century a monk of the abbey greatly elaborated this story by allegingthe removal of canons from the Mont by Richard I of Normandy and their replace-ment by monks in 965/6. The text, which is known as Introductio monachorum, wasthe product of a moment of crisis and aimed at a Norman duke. It has no other docu-mentary support from Mont-Saint-Michel, and the earliest annals of the abbey,produced at a similar date, fail completely to mention any involvement of Richard Iwith the monastery, though they do mention the aid of Richard II in the rebuildingprogramme initiated by Abbot Hildebert II, who died in 1023.94 The same lack ofNorman involvement with the abbey in the tenth century, evidenced in the necrolo-gies and the earliest annnals, is also clearly revealed in the charters copied into theCartulary of 1149.95 The enduring belief in the Introductio’s account of Richard I’salleged reform is principally due to the decision of the cartularist to incorporate it intothe prefatory Historia.
The problem cannot be pursued here, but a considerable question mark must be
raised over the received history of the abbey, which the evidence of the Martyrology-Necrology and the Necrology does much to undermine. Such evidence is extremelyimportant as the nearest thing we have to an objective record, because the informationwas transmitted down the centuries and, although omissions may have occurred,deliberate falsification did not. Currently woefully under-used, necrologies are ripefor systematic exploitation in the investigation not only of individual monasteries, butalso of whole monastic networks, over considerable periods of time. The necrologiesare full of the living dead clamouring to tell their story. The question is: are welistening?
Appendix: Texts showing how the dead were remembered at Mont-Saint-Michel, through confraternity agreements and through liturgy
1. Letter of Robert of Torigny, abbot of Mont-Saint-Michel, recording the act ofconfraternity agreed between his monks and those of Cluny on the occasion of a visitto the Mont by Abbot Stephen of Cluny and Abbot Benedict of La Cluse in 1172;printed Torigni, ed. Delisle, II, no. XXX, pp. 294–5
Ut oblivionis incommodum caveatur, ego Robertus abbas et conventus SanctiMichaelis de periculo maris utile duximus mandare litteris et confirmare sigillo quod,cum dominus Stephanus abbas Cluniacensis de suo adventu ad locum nostrum nosadmodum laetificasset, ab ipso et nobis, presente etiam reverentissimo abbateClusino gratia Benedicto et nomine, in nostro capitulo est constitutum et attentiusconfirmatum, ut monasterium Cluniacense et nostrum subscripto societatis vinculodeinceps in perpetuum astringantur. Igitur si de alterutro monasteriorum fratres ad
93 Dudo, De moribus, Liber Tertius, ed. J. Lair (Caen, 1865), p. 290. Cf. Dudo of St Quentin: History ofthe Normans, ed. and trans. Eric Christiansen (Woodbridge, 1998), p. 164.
94 Cf. a slightly later version printed from another manuscript, in Delisle, Torigni II, 235–6. 95 The tenth-century charters in the Cartulary concerned the Touraine, Brittany and Maine (Cartulary,
alterum venerint, sicut ejusdem loci monachi suscipientur et in ordine erunt, si moramibidem, seu voluntate, seu necessitate, aliquandiu sunt facturi. Pro abbatibus autemCluniacensisbus defunctis sicut pro nostris faciemus; ab ipsis vero pro nostris sicutpro abbatibus qui ad ipsos pertinent est agendum. Pro fratribus autem, quotiensalicujus obitus audietur, officium et missa celebrabitur in conventu, cantabuntque proeo singuli sacerdotes, et ceteri psalmos dicent. Et quia defuncti brevem cito ferri vialongior non permittit, statutum est ut annuatim in octavis sancti Michaelis proutriusque loci defunctis utrinque officium et missa solenniter ac deinde tricenariumcelebretur. Hujus autem fraterne conventionis scripturam vobis, o dilectissimi etomni honore digni sancte Cluniacensis ecclesie fratres universi, transmisimus,quatinus apud vos ob memoriam, si vestre sanctitati placuerit, habeatur.
2. Grant of particular confraternity to laymen, 1249; Avranches 214, part II, p. 73(recto facing end of Regula sci. Benedicti)
Anno ab incarnatione Domini MCCXL nono sacra die Pasche recepimus in Capitulonostro, presente abbate nostro Domno Ricardo, uenerabilem uirum dominumRadulfum Filgeriarum in fraternitate nostra, Dominum Guillelmum Senbric,Iuhellum de Ardena, Stephanum Gelin, Stephanum de Laritour et milites eiusdem. Concessimus eisdem benigne ut a modo participes sint omnium bonorum que fuerintet fient in ecclesia nostra in ieiuniis, uigiliis, elemosiniis, orationibus, et aliis bonis,dictis, factis, et exemplis que poterunt fieri a nobis et a posteris usque in sempiternum. Audita uero morte ipsorum, habebunt missam in conuentu cum uigilia; ab uno quoquesacerdote missam priuatam. Ab illis uero qui non fuerint presbiteri, quod statutum estpro uno de fratribus nostris, promissimus etiam Domino R. Filgeriarum et domino G. Senbric quod singulis diebus orationem pro eis specialem in capitulo nostro faciemus.
3. List of abbeys in confraternity with Mont-Saint-Michel, written c.1400; Avranches214, part I, p. 198In two columns. First headed: Date literarum. Second headed: Secuntur nomina societatum huius monasterii de quibus postcombustione ipsius literas inueniemus
Abbatia Sancti Benedicti FloriacensisAbbatia Sancti Petri de CulturaAbbatia Sancti Iouini de MarnesAbbatia Sancti Petri Bathoniensis
MCCXIII Abbatia Sancti WandregisiliMCCXXII Abbacia Sancti Iuliani TuronensisMCCL Abbatia de Fonte DanielisMCCL Abbatia Sancti Florentii SalumurMCCLI Ecclesia MaclouiensisMCCLXVII Abbatia Sancti Stephani CadomensisMCCXXXIX Abbatia de EbronioMCCXLV Abbatia Sancti Melanii Redonensis
MCCLXIX Abbatia de ExaquioMCCLXXXXVI Abbatia Sancti Meuenii de GaelMCCCIII Abbatia Sancte Marie de La RealMCCCXIX Abbatia SavigniacensisMCCCXXIX Abbatia de GemeticoMCCCX Abbatia Sancti Petri de BurgolioMCCCXLIII Abbatia Sancte Marie de Monte BurgiMCCCXLIX Abbatia de Monte Morellisine data Abbatia Cluniensis [Abbatia Sancti Michaelis Clusensis] Abbatia Sancti
De subsequentibus non inueniemus literas licet in nouo martirologio nostro registr’Abbatia Maioris Monasterii TuronensisAbbatia Sancti Benignii DiuionensisAbbatis de FiscannoAbbatia Sancti Stephani Fonten’Abbatia de Dono regioAbbatia Sancte Marie de BeccoAbbatia Sancte Katerine RothomagensisAbbatia Sancti Audoeni RothomagensisAbbatia Sancti Nicholai AndegauensisAbbatia Sancti Germani de PratisPer relationem breuigeri nostri habuimus notitiam de subscriptibus post
Abbatia sancti Dionisii in FranciaPrioratus Sancti Martini de CampisAbbatia Sancti Mauri de FossatisAbbatia de TrouarnoAbbatia Beati Michaelis de Vlteriori PortuAbbatia Sancti Eburphi LexouiensisAbbatia Sancti Martini SagiensisAbbatia Sancti Petri CarnotensisAbbatia Sancti Meminii primi episcopi Cathalaun’Abbatia Beate Marie de Cormell’Abbatia Sancti Iacuti de InsulaAbbatia Sancti Sergii et Bachi prope AndegauensemPer antiquos martirologos nostros notitiam habemus de ultimis istis. Abbatia Sancti SaluatorisAbbatia Sancti Taurini EbroicensisAbbatis Sancti Petri DiuensisAbbatia Sancti Michaelis ClusensisAbbatia Sancti Petri CerneliensisAbbatia Glost’inensisAbbatia AbesderieAbbatia Sancte Marie MicariensisAbbatia de Sancto IouinoAbbatia Sancti Vincentii Cenomanensis
Abbatia de TyronAbbatia Colecestriein a much later hand Abbatia Vizeliacensis, Abbatia Sancti Georgii de Bauquieuilla
4. Avranches 214, part I, p. 50, extract from the Martyrology-Necrology for 2 April
Ob. Rogerius abbas huius loci.96 [later additions: Osbernus. Hac die anno dni. MCCCCXV recepimus in isto monasterio iocale preciosum ponderis lxxvimarchatum arg’ . . . ad ymaginem Beatissimi Michaelis fabricatum, nobis et dictomonasterio per illustrissimum principem dominum comitem de Harcuria, pro suasuorumque predecessorum ac successorum salute, liberaliter donatum, tali cum pactoquo ad perpetuam sue donationis memoriam teneamur, illud absque alienatione proquorumque neccessitate in eodem monasterio perpetuo conseruare, super quod habuitliteras nostras. Hac die nobis dedit M. Matheus prior huius loci xii marchas argenti inxii ciphis et uno . . .]
5. Extract from a fifteenth-century Ceremonial, suffrages of the dead; Avranches 214,part II, p. 256–59
p. 256 Et una alia processio que sit die huic de defunctis ante missam matutinalem,nisi fuerit festum duodecim lectionum; et si fuerit festum, transfertur ad terciamferiam uel ad quartam et non plus transferetur.  Et sic fit eundo cum aquabenedicta duobus candelabris et una cruce ad porticum supra cimiterium fratrum etdicuntur sub media uoce isti psalmi: Verba mea. et cetera; et post cantor incipietLibera me. cum uersibus cantando Kyriel. Pater noster. Et ne nos uersus et orationessub media uoce. Requiescant in pace. cantetur; deinde incipient vii psalmospenitentiales sub media uoce, sine Gloria in fine. Requiem. Kyriel. Pater noster. Et nenos. uersus A porta. oratio. Absolue. Ista processio non sit infra octauas Pasche, Penthecostes, Sacramenti et a die NatalisDomini usque post Epiphaniam, quia in istis diebus non facimus de defunctis. Parui ebdomadarii faciunt tabulas mortuorum sic pro diebus precedentibus et primopro Pasca a die Mercurii post Dominicam Palmarum usque post octauam Pasche,scribendo in una tabula primo illos de quibus habemus pict’ qui erunt in illis diebusscripti in martirologo uel collectanis,97 ponendo et primo reges – si qui fuerint – etreginas et episcopos et abbates, fratres, et post clericos, laicos et feminas, et post illosde congregatione ponendo similiter per ordinem; et fiet de istis ante d’ die Mercuriiante Pascha. Similiter a die Veneris ante Penthecostam usque post octauam eiusdem,fiet tabula de mortuis scriptis pro illis diebus in collectariis et martirologis, et fiettabula sicut dictum est fiet de eis in die Veneris ante Penthecosten.
96 Roger II, monk of Jumièges, appointed by the duke. Resigned on 16 October 1123, he returned to
Jumièges where he died on 2 April 1124. Avranches 215, fol. 163r.
97 Perhaps here martirologum stands for the Chapter Book (which contained the Usuard Martyrology),
and collectarius for compilations or anthologies of obit materials external to it, e.g. an obituary such asthe one in Avranches 215. On the uses of the word martirologum, cf. Lemaître, ‘Liber capituli’, p. 627:‘En règle générale, le volume (i.e. the Liber capituli) était désigné par l’un des deux textes lecomposant, regula ou martyrolgium, parfois les deux à la fois.’
258 Similiter a die Mercurii in Vigilia Sacramenti usque post octauam eiusdem festi,fiet tabulam sicut dictum est de mortuis scriptis in martirologo et collectanis in illisdiebus, et fiet de illis etiam Vigilia Sacramenti nisi fuerit festum duodecim lectionum,quia si esset festum fietur in feria precedente. Et similiter de die Veneris antePentecostam et de die Mercurii ante Pascha si esset festum duodecim lectionum. Similiter a Vigilia Natalis Domini usque post Epiphaniam fiet tabula sicut dictum estde mortuis scriptis in collectanis et martirologis in illis diebus, et fiet de illis pridieVigilie Natalis Domini nisi fuerit festum duodecim lectionum, et si esset festumfaceremus in feria precedente nisi impeditata. Nota quod facimus tres lectiones de defunctis in diebus octauarum Sancti Stephani,Innocentium et in uigilia Epyphanie et dicitur tamen quod non facimus de defunctis. In die Sancti Columbani que est uicesima prima die mensis Nouembris daturelemosina communis de delardo uel de alectibus cum pane uel argento et in illa diefacimus obitum solennem et hoc est pro secundo Ricardo duce Normannie.98 Et adprandium reficien’ pauperes in refrectorio et debet elemosinarius eos seruire decelario et coquina. In die Iouis in Parasceue datur etiam elemosina communis de fabis cum pane etalectibus et argento et reficiendi pauperes in refrectorio. Et similiter reficiendi in dieCinerum et in die obitus fratum similiter reficiendi pauperes in refrectorio. 259 Pro uno fratre mortuo fit obitus solennis et commendatio et dicimus quinquagintapsalmi psalterii. Et per xxx dies continuos in qualibet die dicitur una missa. Et perillos dies xxx accipiet elemosinarius liberacionem pro illo fratre sicut si frater adhucuiueret et dabit pauperibus. Et quilibet fratrum presbiterorum tenetur dicere pro suosicut mortuo ix missas et iuuenes debent dicere tria psalteria. Pro rege et regina Francie, pro duce et ducissa Normannie, pro duce et ducissaBritannie, et pro filiis et filiabus predictorum pro episcopis Abrincensis pro patribuset matribus fratrum religiosorum huius monasterii debemus facere post obitum eorumobitum solennem.
6. The offices of Prime and Chapter, according to the Ceremonial, Avranches 214,part II, pp. 216–20
216 Mane facto in duodecim lectionibus ad horam vii horarum ordo99 pulsetcampanam de dormitorio et postea ad ecclesiam, et pulset modicum primamcampanam ad euocandum clericum ecclesie qui cito debet uenire et pulsare illamcampanam usque dum factum fuerit signum ab ordine. Et fratres surgentes subsilencio eant in choro et, stantes in locis suis uultus uersus altare, dicant orationes adeorum deuotiones usque ad dimidiam horam; qua pulsata ordo faciat signum et tuncdicant fratres sub silencio psalmum Miserere mei Deus; et pulsetur a clerico una
98 Actually Richard I; Avranches 214, part ii, p. 345: ‘Anno domini millesimo ducentesimo lix. In die
obitus comitis Ricardi fundatoris nostri constituit domnus Ricardus abbas noster cum consensu etuoluntate conuentus que illa die cantor.’
99 Normally the abbot, or in his absence the prior, the subprior or the presbyter missae (hebdomadarius):
Avranches 214, part ii, p. 202: ‘In absentia abbatis et prioris supprior obediatur et puniat et corrigatsicut predicti. In absentia omnium predictorum presbitero misse obediatur et preter punire et corrigerein capitulo si capitulam teneret, Et quia predictorum potestas procedit per ordinem ideo uulgariter inisto monasterio ipsos ordo appelamus.’
mediarum campanarum, et si fuerit festum in capis pulsentur due grosse campane;iterum ordo faciat signum et incipiatur Prima cantando Deus in adiutorium. Hymnus tres psalmi et psalmus de Quicumque uult cum una antiphona. capit’. uersus. Kyriel. Pater noster. Et ne nos. Credo in Deum. Carnis resur’, preces repleatur osmeum. laude. et post uersum Qui replet in bonis ordo dicat Confiteor, fratresdiscoperiuntur et uertant uultus uersus magistrum ordinis et dicant Misereatur etConfiteor. Ordo faciat absolutionem et post dicant, flectendo genua sub silencio, AueMaria, et post dicant residuum de precibus. Sed in die Dominica psalmus deQuodcunque uult dicatur post Domine exaudi ante orationem; post orationem faciaturmemoriam de Sancto Micaele cantando antiphonam uersum et orationem. Postdicuntur psalmi familiares, sed non dicuntur in festis in capis nec etiam ad Terciam,Sextam et Nonam, et postea fratres stantes in medio chori dicuntur sub silencio istitres psalmi Domine ne in furore, secundus Miserere mei Deus. Domine exaudiprimus. ordo faciat distinctiones quibus dictis faciant ante et retro. Mane facto in tribus lectionibus, ad horam sexta horarum cum dimidia, ordo pulsetcampanam de dormitorio et postea uadat ad ecclesiam et pulset modicum primamcampanam, et clericus a die Pasche usque ad octauam diem mensis Octobris pulsetpost illa campana sicut in duodecim lectionibus; et ab illo octauo die usque ad Paschanon pulset nisi fuerint octaue, fratres surgentes sicut in duodecim lectionibus ad viihoras, faciat signa et fiant omnia sicut in duodecim lectionibus sed non pulsetur aliquacampana post Primam. In Quadragesima post tres psalmi familiares dicuntur isti duopsalmi prostracti Beati quorum. Leuaui oculos. Kyriel. Pater noster. Et ne nos uersuset orationes de familiaribus cum uersu et oratione De Prostrattis. Incontinenti post Primam dicuntur Vigilie Mortuorum, et si fuerit pictancia pulsenturcampane et dicuntur sub media uoce, sed si fuerit obitus solennus dicuntur cantandoet dicuntur tres Nocturni et Laudes, nisi ab octauis Pasche usque ad Penteco, quia inillis diebus, nisi fuerit pict’, non dicitur nisi unus Nocturnus et Laudes; et similiter indiebus octauis sancti Stephani, Sanctorum Innocentium, et in uigilia Epyphanie. Paruus ebdomadarius incipiet cantando primas antiphonas noct’ et laud’ et dicetusque nocturnas et laudes et Requiescant in pace cantando, et presbiter misse dicetuersum ante laudes cantando, et tres iuuenes de choro in quo fuerit ebdomadariodicent lectionem sub media uoce et uersus respons’ cantando; si fuerit pictantiaultimum responsarium erit Libera me et cantatur, et cantores dicant uersus; inQuadragesima dicuntur orationes ante laudes et post laudes. Post uigilias mortuorum dicuntur vii psalmi pentienciales tamen antiphona Nereminiscatis cum letania; post letaniam Kryiel, Pater noster et Ne nos, psalmus Deusin adiutorium, uersus et orationes ad deuotionem, et in Quadragesima additur interpsalmum Miserere mei deus et Domine exaudi unus psalmus Inclina domine et postpsalmum Deus in adiutorium additur psalmus In te domine speraui. Post Primam dicatur missa de sancta Maria in capella triginta cercorum, et [erasure?]a sex fratribus ad hoc ordinatis reliqui fratres presbiteri cantant missas, si cantareuoluerunt et fuerint dispositi; reliqui sedeant in claustro cum silentio, dicendoorationes ad eorum uoluntates. Et iuuenes ibi reddant lectiones de lectura, etlectiones de cantu reddant in Capitulo et stant ibi in claustro usque dum ordo faciatsignum cum prima campana. Nota quod in die Lune dicitur inter missam de sanctaMaria et Primam una missa de Sancto Micaele, sed non est adhuc fundata, et debentesse in dicata missa omnes fratres.
In duodecim lectionibus ad nonam horas, si non fuerit ieiunium, et si fuerit ieiuniumad decem horas, ordo faciat signum cum prima campana, deinde iuuenis facienstabulam et pulsans campanam, omnes fratres ibi stantes in cellis suis uultus uersusaltare dicentes orationes, ordo faciat signum ad modum Oremus et precedens, et posteum iuuenes primi eant in capitulo dicendo sub silencio Miserere mei Deus, et iuuenisfaciens tabulam accepta benedictione a illo magistro ordinis legat kalendam, scilicetde festis sanctorum de sequentie die; post kalendam dicantur uersus et orationesscilicet Pretiosa est et cetera. Et post ea legatur in duodecim lectionibus deexpositione Euangelii illius diei, et in tribus lectionibus de Regula sancti Benedicti. Post Tu autem leget tabulam pro die sequenti de lection[ibus] et responsor[iis]mat[utinalibus], et post legat ille frater mortuos de die sequenti sicut scriptum est inmartirologuo, et in fine dicet Et omnis alii familiares nostri; postea dicat ordo Proillis. Anime omnium fidelium et cetera. Pater noster et Benedicite sine benedictioneiuuenis qui faciet tabulam sub correctione, cantor statuet quis dicet missam de sanctaMaria in die sequenti et dicet fratres qui fuerunt de custodia noctis. Et ibi notum quodomnes fratres debent facere custodiam noctis, scilicet circumeundo domum et murosduo in qualibet nocte cum duobus clericis ecclesie . . . p. 220 In isto Capitulo si fuerint aliquae correctiones faciende fiant. Et si fuerit aliquidad ordinandum uel statuendum pro bono monasterii ibi fiat; et est principalecapitulum septimane in die sabbati eo quod si minus bene fuerit factum uel correctumibi statuetur et ordinetur. Ad exitum capituli incipiet ordo psalmus Verba mea etcetera sicut in fine Matutine et dicantur decem psalmos sub media uoce eundo adecclesiam. Pro toto anno est principale Capitulum in festo Sancti Auberti, et ibipriores debent declarare status suorum prioratum, et officiarii et receptores debentreddere compota. Post Capitulum in duodecim lectionibus dicitur missa matutinalis et post missammatutinalem . . .
RELAZIONE TECNICA DEL FORUM SOCIALE DEL MEDITERRANEO (FSMed) 1. Inventario dei compiti e responsabilità della Segreteria Tecnica Le responsabilità della Segreteria Tecnica sono state, tra le altre, le seguenti: Coordinazione generale della marcia del Forum a Barcellona Gestione del ufficio tecnico (aprile-luglio 2005) Gestione del ufficio di Segreteria durante il Forum Gestione della
TAKING CARE OF THE MONTHLY VISITOR TG/1.2.3 • Menstruation All women menstruate except during pregnancy, nursing a baby, is very underweight, ill or having problems with the reproductive system. Women start to menstruate between the ages of 9 to 18 years, and continue to menstruate till about age 45 to 50 years. Most women menstruate regularly every 21 to 40 days. However, some