Instructions to authors
• A statement of financial or other relation- ships that might lead to a conflict of interest, if that information is not included in the manu- script itself; Conflict of Interest Statement is avail- Acta Medica Academica is a biannual, peer- • A statement that the manuscript has been reviewed journal that publishes: (1) reports of read and approved for publication by all authors; original research, (2) original clinical observa- • Copies of all permissions to reproduce pub- tions accompanied by analysis and discussion, lished material, to use il ustrations or report in- (3) analysis of philosophical, ethical, or social aspects of the health profession or biomedical sci- • Opinion of the authors about the category ences, (4) critical reviews, (5) statistical compila- tions, (6) descriptions of evaluation of methods • Contact information and addresses of three or procedures, (7) case reports, and (8) images in potential reviewers, as well as names of the per- clinical medicine. The fields covered include ba- sons you would not like to be reviewers of your sic biomedical research, clinical and laboratory medicine, veterinary medicine, clinical research, • A statement of authorship by all listed au- epidemiology, phramacology, public health, oral thors about their contribution in the drafting of the paper which needs to include the text in accordance with one of the following sentences: Manuscript submission
(a) A substantial contributions to the conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and Manuscript can be submitted electronical y, as interpretation of data; (b) Drafting the article an email attachment, to one of the following or revising it critical y for important intellectual content; (c) Final approval of the version to be; [email protected] All manuscripts published. (eg. Authors’ contributions: Con- submitted to AMA will be regularly analysed by ception and design: MK and OG; Acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data: MK and GL; Drafting the article MK; Revising it critical y for All parts of the manuscript, including title page, important intellectual content: GL and OG) abstract, text, tables, figures, etc., have to be available in electronic format. The recommended formats are: Microsoft Word, Excel, JPEG, GIF, Copyright assignment
TIFF. Always keep a backup copy of the electronic file for reference and safety. All electronical y sub- All authors must complete and sign the Copy- mitted files are to be scanned by the authors for right Assignment form upon acceptance of the viruses immediately prior to submission with manuscript and return it to the editorial office. appropriate current software, and submitted in The Copyright Assignment form can be found good faith that the files are free of viruses.
at Accepted papers will not be sent for publication until this form has been complet- Cover letter
Manuscripts must be accompanied by a cover letter, Manuscript preparation
which should include the following information: • A statement that the paper has not been sent Manuscripts have to be written according to the to or accepted for publication in any other journal; rules stated in “Uniform Requirements for Man- uscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals”. The es), only two graphical display (figure or table) full document is available from and up to 5 references and up to 3 authors.
Language. Manuscripts must be written in
Statistical and methodological compila-
clear, concise, grammatical English. Authors tions – up to 16 pages (maximum count 32000
from non-English speaking countries are re- quested to have their text translated by a profes- • Case reports and letters – up to 3 pages
sional, or thoroughly checked by a native speaker (maximum count 10000 characters with spaces), a with experience in writing scientific and medical maximum of 2 figures or tables and no more than manuscripts in English. Revision of the language is the responsibility of the author. All manuscripts • Images in clinical medicine – is an article
should be spellchecked using a Microsoft Word or providing one or two fascinating pictures in black Dorland’s spellchecker before they are submitted. and white or in color. It can be clinical or technical Spelling should be US English or British English, on a patient or part of a patient, for instance an x- but not a mixture. On the grounds of poor Eng- ray or MRI image or a histological document. The lish manuscripts may be sent back to an author picture is accompanied by a short text (a maximum for rewriting or language correction.
of 300 words), up to 3 authors, and if necessary 1 to Font and spacing. The manuscript should be
prepared in Microsoft Word format (for PC, 6.0 or a later version). Paper version should be typewrit- • Letter to the editor – up to 3 pages (max-
ten on white bond paper of A4 size, with margins imum count 2000 characters with spaces), and 3 cm each. Write on one side of each sheet, using a font not smaller than 12 points, preferably Times Organization of the text. The text of origi-
New Roman or Arial. All pages must be num- nal articles is usual y divided into sections with bered. Prepare texts with double spacing (except the following headings: Introduction, Materi- those of tables, which are made with table tools als (Patients) and methods, Results, Discussion in Word or in Excel). Double spacing of all por- and Conclusion. This structure is not simply an tions of the manuscript (including the title page, arbitrary publication format, but rather a direct abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, and reflection of the process of scientific discovery. legends), makes it possible for editors and review- Long articles may need subheadings within some ers to edit the text line by line, and add comments sections (especial y the Results and Discussion and queries, directly on the paper copy.
sections) to clarify their content. Other types Length. The length of a manuscript depends
of articles, such as case reports, reviews, and on its type. On the title page, author should editorials, are likely to need other more flexible specify total word count and/or character count. structure of the text. If possible, use standard ab- Microsoft Word can count them for you. With breviations. Non-standard abbreviations should double spacing (2000 characters with spaces per
be defined when first used in the text.
Editorial – up to 3 pages (maximum
count 6000 characters with spaces) and maximum Title page (the first page)
Review article – from 12 to 20 pages
The title page should carry the following infor- (maximum count 30000 characters with spaces) • Original research study – from 12 to
2. Title of the article, which should be as 15 pages (maximum count 30000 characters with short and concise as possible. Authors should include all information in the title that will make • Original (scientific and professional) ar-
electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive ticle – from 12 to 15 pages (maximum count 30000
3. A short title (up to 50 characters with spac- • Short communication – up to 5 pages
es), which will appear in the heading of an article (maximum count 10000 characters with spac- 4. Authors’ names and institutional affili- sion. Abstracts for Short communication (150 ations (full first name followed by family name, words) should not be structured but should end separated by a comma from the next name; us- with Conclusion. Following the abstract, authors ing Arabic numerals in superscript format relate provide, and identify as such, 3 to 5 key words or short phrases that capture the main topics of the article. The key words should not repeat the institution(s) to which the work should be at- title of the manuscript. Terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus 6. Corresponding authors. The name, mail- should be used; MeSH terms are available from: ing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author responsible for cor- respondence about the manuscript. The name and address of the author to whom requests for Third page
reprints should be addressed (if different from the corresponding author), or a statement that Should carry the manuscript of article. Text reprints will not be available from the authors.
7. Specify sources of support in the form of Introduction. Needs to be short and to spec-
grants, equipment, drugs, or others, if any and a ify to the reader, clearly and with arguments, statement about existence or non-existence of the reasons for the research presentation, and the novelties that the article brings. In Introduction 8. Total number of pages, words and char- maximum 3 to 4 pertinent and directly related acters with spaces (Microsoft Word enables the works need to be cited. At the end of Introduc- simple acquisition of these data), number of figures tion, an author needs to clearly specify the set and tables. A word count for the text only (exclud- ing abstract, acknowledgments, figure legends, and Methods. This part needs to provide the
references) allows editors and reviewers to assess following information: selection and descrip- whether the information contained in the paper tion of participants, precise technical informa- warrants the amount of space devoted to it, and tion about all methods (describe the methods, whether the submitted manuscript fits within the apparatus, and procedures in sufficient detail to journal’s word limits. A separate word count for the allow other workers to reproduce the results; Abstract is also useful for the same reason.
give references to established methods, including statistical methods; identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic names, Second page
doses, and routes of administration and other specificities related to the presented research). Abstract and Key words are written on the second Upon reporting about humane experiments, page. Because abstracts are the only substantive an author needs to indicate if the used proce- portion of the article indexed in many electronic dures were in accordance with the Declaration databases, and the only portion many readers of Helsinki from 1975 and its amendments from read, authors need to be careful that abstracts 1983. In addition, there needs to be stated if reflect the content of the article accurately. An and which ethical committee gave consent for abstract (250 words) is written without authors’ carrying out the research. A separate subtitle is names and institutional affiliations. Its struc- Statistical Analysis. Authors need to indicate all ture should be similar to that of the text. For statistical tests that were used. In addition, there original articles, the abstract needs to have the needs to be stated the level of significance selected structure with the following subtitles: Objective, beforehand (p), that is which value p the authors Materials and methods, Results and Conclusion. considered to be statistical y important (ex. 0.05 Abstracts for Case reports also need to have the or 0.01, or some other). The results should be following subtitles: Objective, Case report, and stated with pertaining confidence intervals (CI).
Conclusion and for Review articles: Objective, The editorship recommends to the authors Background, Methods, Discussion and Conclu- to follow STARD instructions published in 2003 in the researches of diagnostic accuracy. At the and interpretation of data: MK and GL; Drafting end of the paragraph authors need to state which the article MK; Revising it critical y for important computer statistical program they have been us- ing, as wel as indicate the manufacturer and ver- Conflict of interest (eg.): The authors de-
clare that they have no conflict of interest.
Results. Present your results in logical se-
References. Need to be on a separate page.
quence in the text, tables, and il ustrations, giv- Small numbers of references to key original pa- ing the main or most important findings first. pers will often serve as wel as more exhaustive Restrict tables and figures to those needed to lists. Avoid using abstracts as references. Referenc- explain the argument of the paper and to assess es to papers accepted but not yet published should its support. Use graphs as an alternative to ta- be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming”; au- bles with many entries; do not duplicate data in thors should obtain written permission to cite graphs and tables. The text must contain a clear such papers as well as verification that they have designation as to where the tables and illustra- been accepted for publication. If the paper has tions are to be placed relative to the text. Do not been published in electronic form on PubMed the duplicate data by presenting it in both a table confirmation of acceptance is not needed. Infor- mation from manuscripts submitted but not ac- Discussion. Emphasize the new and impor-
cepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished tant aspects of the study and the conclusions that observations” with written permission from the follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or source. Avoid citing a “personal communication” other material given in the Introduction or the unless it provides essential information. For sci- Results section. For experimental studies it is entific articles, authors should obtain written per- useful to begin the discussion by summarizing mission and confirmation of accuracy from the briefly the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, References should be numbered consecutive- compare and contrast the results with other rele- ly in the order in which they are first mentioned vant studies, state the limitations of the study, and in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and explore the implications of the findings for future legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses at the end of a sentence. Use the same number in the Conclusion. Link the conclusions with the
reference list. References cited only in tables or goals of the study but avoid unqualified state- figure legends should be numbered in accordance ments and conclusions not adequately supported with the sequence established by the first identifi- by the data. In particular, authors should avoid cation in the text of the particular table or figure.
making statements on economic benefits and The titles of journals should be abbreviated ac- costs unless their manuscript includes the ap- cording to the style used in Index Medicus. Con- propriate economic data and analyses. Avoid sult the list of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE, claiming priority and al uding to work that has published annual y as a separate publication by not been completed. State new hypotheses when the National Library of Medicine (available from: warranted, but clearly label them as such. Examples Acknowledge. Anyone who contributed to-
of references please see on the following pages.
wards the study by making substantial contribu- Tables. Need to be submitted separate from
tions to conception, design, acquisition of data, the main text. The preferred software for tables is or analysis and interpretation of data, or who Microsoft Excel (save each table in a file with single was involved in drafting the manuscript or revis- worksheet). Only tables made with table tools in ing it critical y for important intellectual content, Microsoft Word are acceptable. For the paper ver- but who does not meet the criteria for authorship. sion, type or print each table on a separate sheet List the source(s) of funding for the study and for of paper. Number tables consecutively in the or- the manuscript preparation in the acknowledge- der of their first citation in the text. Use Arabic numerals. Each table needs to have an explana- Authors’ contributions (eg.): Conception
tory title. Place the title above the table. Give each and design: MK and OG; Acquisition, analysis column a short or abbreviated heading. Also, visibly indicate the position of each table in the or their pictures must be accompanied by written text, using its assigned numeral at the end of the sentence which is relevant to the table(s). Tables Legends for Figures need to be included in the should be positioned in the text where the au- main manuscript text file, on a separate page im- thor feels is appropriate but the Editor reserves mediately following the references. Type or print the right to reorganize the layout to suit the print- out legends using double spacing. For each fig- ing process. Authors need to place explanatory ure, the following information should be pro- matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain vided: figure number (in sequence, using Ara- in footnotes of the table all nonstandard abbrevi- bic numerals – i.e. Figure); title of the figure; all ations. For footnotes use the following symbols, necessary explanations. When symbols, arrows, in sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡. Identify sta- numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of tistical measures of variations, such as standard the il ustrations, identify and explain each one deviation and standard error of the arithmetic mean. Be sure that each table is cited in the text. If you use data from another published or unpub- lished source, obtain permission and acknowl- Units of measurement
Figures. (il ustrations: diagram, photograph,
Measurements of length, height, weight, and vol- photomicrograph, radiograph, drawing, sketch, ume should be reported in metric units (meter, picture, outline, design, plan, map, chart, etc.). kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Tem- Need to be submitted separate from the main peratures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pres- text. They need to be submitted as photographic sures should be in millimeters of mercury, unless quality digital prints or, exceptional y, as profes- other units are specifical y required by the journal.
sional y drawn and photographed original il- lustrations. Figures should be in a digital format that will produce high quality images. Formats Abbreviation, Acronyms and Symbols
recommended include: JPEG, GIF, TIFF, Micro- soft Word, Excel. Sending original photographs If possible for metric units use standard abbre- and slides is permissible when they cannot be viations. Non-standard abbreviations should be digitized without professional help. In this case, defined when first used in the text.
send an explanation in the cover letter. Using Ara- bic numerals, number figures consecutively in the Sample references
order of their first citation in the text. Also, vis- ibly indicate the position of each figure in the Articles in journals
text, using its assigned numeral in parentheses. Figures should be positioned in the text where Standard journal article (List the first six authors the author feels is appropriate but the Editor re- serves the right to reorganize the layout to suit Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Supply a legend for each figure. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends, how- ever, not on the figures themselves. Figures should be made as self-explanatory as possible. Letters, Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, numbers, and symbols on figures should there- Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of fore be clear and even throughout, and of suffi- interstitial excitatory amino acid concentra- cient size that when reduced for publication each tions after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. item will still be legible. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose toler- ance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
mortalization of yolk sacderived precursor cel s. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31. 21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.
Books and other monographs
Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerabil- ity and safety of frovatriptan with short- and Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. sten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Ade- laide, Department of Clinical Nursing. Com- pendium of nursing research and practice operative frozen section analysis in revi- development, 1999-2000. Adelaide (Austra- sion total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chro- mosome alterations in human solid tumors. Tor M, Turker H. International approaches to In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The ge- the prescription of long-term oxygen therapy netic basis of human cancer. New York: Mc- [letter]. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(1):242.; bom KA, Bigelow GE. Characteristics of old- Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza’s computational effort statistic for ge- [abstract]. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66 netic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Ge- ings of the 5th European Conference on Ge- Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. The reproduc- netic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, tive importance of P-type ATPases. Mol Cell Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.
Endocrinol. 2002;188(1-2):22-5. Corrected and republished from: Mol Cell Endocrinol. a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Malinowski JM, Bolesta S. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Clin Ther. 2000;22(10):1151- Other published material
68; discussion 1149-50. Erratum in: Clin Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homi- Article published electronical y ahead of the cide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).
Dorland’s il ustrated medical dictionary. 29th palliative care for cancer [monograph on the ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Fila- Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.nap. edu/books/0309074029/html/.
Electronic material [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Re- Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson’s elec- sources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; tronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Phil- cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.
adelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Chason KW, Sal ustio S. Hospital prepared- ness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Secau- on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; cus (NJ): Network for Continuing Medical 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from: Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Who’s Certified [database on the Internet]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.
Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medi- cal Specialists. c2000 – [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Available from:


Medicament du systeme nerveux autonome (sna)

Les médicaments du système nerveux autonome ou système nerveux végétatif reproduisent ou empêchent les effets de la stimulation du système parasympathique et du système sympathique. 1) parasympathomimétiques ou cholinergiques : Le sna est en partie responsable des activités d'élimination, de digestion, de rythme cardiaque. Pour que l'impulsion nerveuse soit transmise jusqu'à l'organ


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